HyC Adventures
The Poetics of Perception
Table of Contents: C.S. Peirce's Collected Papers

 

 

 

The Collected Papers

of Charles Sanders Peirce

Volumes I-VIII

 

Volumes I-VI

Edited by

Charles Hartshorne and Paul Weiss

 

Volumes VII-VIII

Edited by

Arthur W. Burks

 

 

Table of Contents

 

[Note: Paragraphs are numbered sequentially in each volume; following each title is the number of the paragraph on which that section begins.]

 

 

  Volume I

 

 Principles of Philosophy

 

PREFACE 1

 

BOOK I. GENERAL HISTORICAL ORIENTATION

 

CHAP. 1. LESSONS FROM THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY

 1. Nominalism 15

 2. Conceptualism 27

 3. The Spirit of Scholasticism 28

 4. Kant and his Refutation of Idealism 35

 5. Hegelism 40

 

CHAP. 2. LESSONS FROM THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE

 1. The Scientific Attitude 43

 2. The Scientific Imagination 46

 3. Science and Morality 49

 4. Mathematics 52

 5. Science as a Guide to Conduct 55

 6. Morality and Sham Reasoning 56

 7. The Method of Authority 59

 8. Science and Continuity 61

 9. The Analytic Method 63

 10. Kinds of Reasoning 65

 11. The Study of the Useless 75

 12. Il Lume Naturale 80

 13. Generalization and Abstraction 82

 14. The Evaluation of Exactitude 85

 15. Science and Extraordinary Phenomena 87

 16. Reasoning from Samples 92

 17. The Method of Residual Phenomena 98

 18. Observation 99

 19. Evolution 103

 20. Some A Priori Dicta 110

 21. The Paucity of Scientific Knowledge 116

 22. The Uncertainty of Scientific Results 120

 23. Economy of Research 122

 

CHAP. 3. NOTES ON SCIENTIFIC PHILOSOPHY

 1. Laboratory and Seminary Philosophies 126

 2. Axioms 130

 3. The Observational Part of Philosophy 133

 4. The First Rule of Reason 135

 5. Fallibilism, Continuity, and Evolution 141

 

BOOK II. THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE SCIENCES

 

Proem: The Architectonic Character of Philosophy 176

 

CHAP. 1. AN OUTLINE CLASSIFICATION OF THE SCIENCES 180

 

CHAP. 2. A DETAILED CLASSIFICATION OF THE SCIENCES

 1. Natural Classes 203

 2. Natural Classifications 224

 3. The Essence of Science 232

 4. The Divisions of Science 238

 5. The Divisions of Philosophy 273

 6. The Divisions of Mathematics 283

 

BOOK III. PHENOMENOLOGY

 

CHAP. 1. INTRODUCTION

 1. The Phaneron 284

 2. Valencies 288

 3. Monads, Dyads, and Triads 293

 4. Indecomposable Elements 294

 

CHAP. 2. THE CATEGORIES IN DETAIL

 A. Firstness

  1. The Source of the Categories 300

  2. The Manifestation of Firstness 302

  3. The Monad 303

  4. Qualities of Feeling 304

  5. Feeling as Independent of Mind and Change 305

  6. A Definition of Feeling 306

  7. The Similarity of Feelings of Different Sensory Modes 312

  8. Presentments as Signs 313

  9. The Communicability of Feelings 314

  10. The Transition to Secondness 317

 B. Secondness

  1. Feeling and Struggle 322

  2. Action and Perception 324

  3. The Varieties of Secondness 325

  4. The Dyad 326

  5. Polar Distinctions and Volition 330

  6. Ego and Non-Ego 332

  7. Shock and the Sense of Change 335

 C. Thirdness

  1. Examples of Thirdness 337

  2. Representation and Generality 338

  3. The Reality of Thirdness 343

  4. Protoplasm and the Categories 350

  5. The Interdependence of the Categories 353

 

CHAP. 3. A GUESS AT THE RIDDLE

 Plan of the Work 354

 1. Trichotomy 355

 2. The Triad in Reasoning 369

 3. The Triad in Metaphysics 373

 4. The Triad in Psychology 374

 5. The Triad in Physiology 385

 6. The Triad in Biological Development 395

 7. The Triad in Physics 400

 

CHAP. 4. THE LOGIC OF MATHEMATICS; AN ATTEMPT TO DEVELOP MY CATEGORIES FROM WITHIN

 1. The Three Categories 417

 2. Quality 422

 3. Fact 427

 4. Dyads 441

 5. Triads 471

 

CHAP. 5. DEGENERATE CASES

 1. Kinds of Secondness 521

 2. The Firstness of Firstness, Secondness and Thirdness 530

 

CHAP. 6. ON A NEW LIST OF CATEGORIES

 1. Original Statement 545

 2. Notes on the Preceding 560

 

CHAP. 7. TRIADOMANY 568

 

BOOK IV. THE NORMATIVE SCIENCES

 

CHAP. 1. INTRODUCTION 573

 

CHAP. 2. ULTIMATE GOODS 575

 

CHAP. 3. AN ATTEMPTED CLASSIFICATION OF ENDS 585

 

CHAP. 4. IDEALS OF CONDUCT 591

 

CHAP. 5. VITALLY IMPORTANT TOPICS

 1. Theory and Practice 616

 2. Practical Concerns and the Wisdom of Sentiment 649

 3. Vitally Important Truths 661

 

 

  Volume II

 

 Elements of Logic

 

BOOK I. GENERAL AND HISTORICAL SURVEY OF LOGIC

 

CHAP. 1. CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF LOGICAL THEORIES

 1. Logic's Promises 1

 2. Of Minute Accuracy 8

 3. Different Methods in Logic 18

 

CHAP. 2. PARTIAL SYNOPSIS OF A PROPOSED WORK IN LOGIC

 1. Originality, Obsistence, and Transuasion 79

 2. Terms, Propositions, and Arguments 95

 3. Clearness of Ideas 98

 4. Abduction, Deduction, and Induction 100

 5. Speculative Rhetoric 195

 6. Objective Logic 111

 

CHAP. 3. WHY STUDY LOGIC?

 1. The Pre-Logical Sciences 119

 2. Ten Pre-Logical Opinions 123

 3. The Objectivity of Truth 135

 4. Direct Knowledge 140

 5. Reasoning and Expectation 144

 6. The Fallibility of Reasoning and the Feeling of Rationality 151

 7. Reasoning and Conduct 175

 8. Reasoning and Consciousness 179

 9. Logica Utens 186

 10. Logica Utens and Logica Docens 188

 11. The Improvement of Reasoning 191

 12. Esthetics, Ethics, and Logic 196

 13. Utility of Logical Theory 201

 14. Logic 203

 

BOOK II. SPECULATIVE GRAMMAR

 

CHAP. 1. ETHICS OF TERMINOLOGY 219

 

CHAP. 2. DIVISION OF SIGNS

 1. Ground, Object, and Interpretant 227

 2. Signs and Their Objects 230

 3. Division of Triadic Relations 233

 4. One Trichotomy of Signs 243

 5. A Second Trichotomy of Signs 247

 6. A Third Trichotomy of Signs 250

 7. Ten Classes of Signs 254

 8. Degenerate Signs 265

 9. The Trichotomy of Arguments 266

 10. Kinds of Propositions 271

 11. Represent 273

 

CHAP. 3. THE ICON, INDEX, AND SYMBOL

 1. Icons and Hypoicons 274

 2. Genuine and Degenerate Indices 283

 3. The Nature of Symbols 292

 4. Sign 303

 5. Index 305

 6. Symbol 307

 

CHAP. 4. PROPOSITIONS

 1. The Characteristics of Dicisigns 309

 2. Subjects and Predicates 315

 3. Dichotomies of Propositions 323

 4. A Pragmatic Interpretation of the Logical Subject 328

 5. The Nature of Assertion 332

 6. Rudimentary Propositions and Arguments 344

 7. Subject 357

 8. Predicate 358

 9. Predication 359

 10. Quantity 362

 11. Universal 367

 12. Particular 372

 13. Quality 374

 14. Negation 378

 15. Limitative 381

 16. Modality 382

 

CHAP. 5. TERMS

 1. That these Conceptions are not so Modern as has been

  Represented 391

 2. Of the Different Terms applied to the Quantities of Extension

  and Comprehension 393

 3. Of the Different Senses in which the Terms Extension and

  Comprehension have been accepted 395

 4. Denials of the Inverse Proportionality of the Two Quantities,

  and Suggestions of a Third Quantity 400

 5. Three Principal Senses in which Comprehension and Extension

  will be taken in this Paper 407

 6. The Conceptions of Quality, Relation, and Representation,

  applied to this Subject 418

 7. Supplement of 1893 427

 8. Signification and Application 431

 

CHAP. 6. THE GRAMMATICAL THEORY OF JUDGMENT AND INFERENCE

 1. Judgments 435

 2. Inference 442

 

BOOK III. CRITICAL LOGIC

 

A. Explicative Reasoning

 

CHAP. 1. THE ARISTOTELIAN SYLLOGISTIC

 1. Pretensions of Demonstrative Reasoning 445

 2. Rules and Cases 452

 3. The Quadrant 455

 

CHAP. 2. ON THE NATURAL CLASSIFICATION OF ARGUMENTS

 Part I

  1. Essential Parts of an Argument 461

  2. Relations between the Premisses and Leading Principle 465

  3. Decomposition of Argument 468

  4. Of a General Type of Syllogistic Argument 471

 

 Part II

  1. Of Apagogical Forms 475

  2. Of Contradiction 476

  3. Of Barbara 478

  4. Of the First Figure 479

  5. Second and Third Figures 480

  6. The Theophrastean Moods 500

  7. Mathematical Syllogisms 507

 

 Part III

  1. Induction and Hypothesis 508

  2. Moods and Figures of Probable Inference 512

  3. Analogy 513

  4. Formal Relations of the Above Forms of Arguments 514

 

CHAP. 3. EXTENSION OF THE ARISTOTELIAN SYLLOGISTIC

 1. On a Limited Universe of Marks 517

 2. General Canon of Syllogism 528

 3. Hamilton's Quantification of the Predicate 532

 4. Universe of Discourse 536

 

CHAP. 4. NOTES ON EXPLICATIVE REASONING

 1. Logical 537

 2. Pure 544

 3. Organon 547

 4. Intention 548

 5. Material Logic 549

 6. Logical Contraposition and Conversion 550

 7. Obversion 551

 8. Syllogism 552

 9. Middle Term and Middle 581

 10. Premise and Premiss 582

 11. Mnemonic Verses and Words 584

 12. Reduction 585

 13. Leading Principle 588

 14. Nota Notæ 590

 15. Laws of Thought 593

 16. Regular Proof 601

 17. Pertinent 602

 18. Implicit 603

 19. Observation 606

 20. Spurious Proposition 607

 21. Opposition608

 22. Inconsistency 609

 23. Reductio ad Absurdum 612

 24. Fallacies 613

 25. Insolubilia 618

 

B. Ampliative Reasoning

 

CHAP. 5. DEDUCTION, INDUCTION, AND HYPOTHESIS

 1. Rule, Case, and Result 619

 2. Baroco and Bocardo; Hypothesis and Induction 626

 3. Rules for Induction and Hypotheses 632

 4. Empirical Formulae and Theories 636

 5. On the Difference between Induction and Hypothesis 641

 

CHAP. 6. THE DOCTRINE OF CHANCES

 1. Continuity and the Formation of Concepts 645

 2. The Problem of Probability 647

 3. On Degrees of Probability 649

 4. Three Logical Sentiments 652

 5. Fundamental Rules for the Calculation of Chances 656

 6. Notes on the Doctrine of Chances 661

 

CHAP. 7. THE PROBABILITY OF INDUCTION

 1. Rules for the Addition and Multiplication of Probabilities 669

 2. Materialistic and Conceptualistic Views of Probability 673

 3. On the Chance of Unknown Events 680

 4. On the Probability of Synthetical Inferences 685

 5. The Rationale of Synthetic Inference 690

 

CHAP. 8. A THEORY OF PROBABLE INFERENCE

 1. Probable Deduction and Probability in General 694

 2. Statistical Deduction 698

 3. Induction 702

 4. Hypothetic Inference 704

 5. General Characters of Deduction, Induction, and Hypothesis 708

 6. Induction and Hypothesis; Indirect Statistical Inferences;

  General Rule for their Validity 715

 7. First Special Rule for Synthetic Inference.

  Sampling must be Fair. Analogy 725

 8. Second Special Rule for Synthetic Inference,

  that of Predesignation 735

 9. Uniformities 741

 10. Constitution of the Universe 744

 11. Further Problems 751

 

CHAP. 9. THE VARIETIES AND VALIDITY OF INDUCTION

 1. Crude, Quantitative, and Qualitative Induction 755

 2. Mill on Induction 761

 

CHAP. 10. NOTES ON AMPLIATIVE REASONING

 1. Reasoning 773

 2. Validity 779

 3. Proof  782

 4. Probable Inference 783

 5. Predesignate 788

 6. Presumption 791

 

APPENDIX:

MEMORANDA CONCERNING THE ARISTOTELIAN SYLLOGISM 792

 

 

  Volume III

 

 Exact Logic

 

I. ON AN IMPROVEMENT IN BOOLE'S CALCULUS OF LOGIC (1867) 1

 

II. UPON THE LOGIC OF MATHEMATICS (1867)

 1. The Boolian Calculus 20

 2. On Arithmetic 42

 

III. DESCRIPTION OF A NOTATION FOR THE LOGIC OF RELATIVES, RESULTING FROM AN AMPLIFICATION OF THE CONCEPTIONS OF BOOLE'S CALCULUS OF LOGIC (1870)

 1. De Morgan's Notation 45

 2. General Definitions of the Algebraic Signs 47

 3. Application of the Algebraic Signs to Logic 62

 4. General Formulæ 81

 5. General Method of Working with this Notation 89

 6. Properties of Particular Relative Terms 135

 

IV. ON THE APPLICATION OF LOGICAL ANALYSIS TO MULTIPLE ALGEBRA (1875) 150

 

V. NOTE ON GRASSMANN'S CALCULUS OF EXTENSION (1877) 152

 

VI. ON THE ALGEBRA OF LOGIC (1880)

 Part I. Syllogistic

  1. Derivation of Logic154

  2. Syllogism and Dialogism 162

  3. Forms of Propositions 173

  4. The Algebra of the Copula 182

 Part II. The Logic of Non-Relative Terms

  1. The Internal Multiplication and the Addition of Logic 198

  2. The Resolution of Problems in Non-Relative Logic 204

 Part III. The Logic of Relatives

  1. Individual and Simple Terms 214

  2. Relatives 218

  3. Relatives connected by Transposition of Relate and Correlate 223

  4. Classification of Relatives 225

  5. The Composition of Relatives 236

  6. Methods in the Algebra of Relatives 245

  7. The General Formulæ for Relatives 248

 

VII. ON THE LOGIC OF NUMBER (1881)

 1. Definition of Quantity 252

 2. Simple Quantity 255

 3. Discrete Quantity 257

 4. Semi-infinite Quantity 260

 5. Discrete Simple Quantity Infinite in both Directions 272

 6. Limited Discrete Simple Quantity 280

 

VIII. ASSOCIATIVE ALGEBRAS (1881)

 1. On the Relative Forms of the Algebras 289

 2. On the Algebras in which Division is Unambiguous 297

 

IX. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE ALGEBRA OF RELATIVES (1882) 306

 

X. ON THE RELATIVE FORMS OF QUATERNIONS (1882) 323

 

XI. ON A CLASS OF MULTIPLE ALGEBRAS (1882) 324

 

XII. THE LOGIC OF RELATIVES (1883) 328

 

XIII. ON THE ALGEBRA OF LOGIC: A CONTRIBUTION TO THE PHILOSOPHY OF NOTATION (1885)

 1. Three Kinds of Signs 359

 2. Non-Relative Logic 365

 3. First-Intentional Logic of Relatives 392

 4. Second-Intentional Logic 398

 5. Note 403A

 

XIV. THE CRITIC OF ARGUMENTS (1892)

 1. Exact Thinking 404

 2. The Reader is Introduced to Relatives 415

 

XV. THE REGENERATED LOGIC (1896) 425

 

XVI. THE LOGIC OF RELATIVES (1897)

 1. Three Grades of Clearness 456

 2. Of the Term Relation in its First Grade of Clearness 458

 3. Of Relation in the Second Grade of Clearness 464

 4. Of Relation in the Third Grade of Clearness 468

 5. Triads, the Primitive Relatives 483

 6. Relatives of Second Intention 488

 7. The Algebra of Dyadic Relatives 492

 8. General Algebra of Logic 499

 9. Method of Calculating with the General Algebra 503

 10. Schröder's Conception of Logical Problems 510

 11. Professor Schröder's Pentagrammatical Notation 520

 12. Professor Schröder's Iconic Solution of x∠φx 523

 13. Introduction to the Logic of Quantity 526

 

XVII. THE LOGIC OF MATHEMATICS IN RELATION TO EDUCATION (1898)

 1. Of Mathematics in General 553

 2. Of Pure Number 562A

 

XVIII. INFINITESIMALS (1900) 563

 

XIX. NOMENCLATURE AND DIVISIONS OF DYADIC RELATIONS (1903)

 1. Nomenclature 571

 2. First System of Divisions 578

 3. Second System of Divisions 583

 4. Third System of Divisions 588

 5. Fourth System of Divisions 601

 6. Note on the Nomenclature and Divisions of Modal Dyadic Relations 606

 

XX. NOTES ON SYMBOLIC LOGIC AND MATHEMATICS (1901 and 1911)

 1. Imaging 609

 2. Individual 611

 3. Involution 614

 4. Logic (exact) 616

 5. Multitude (in mathematics) 626

 6. Postulate 632

 7. Presupposition 635

 8. Relatives 636

 9. Transposition 644

 

APPENDIX:

ON NONIONS 646

 

 

  Volume IV

 

 The Simplest Mathematics

 

BOOK I. LOGIC AND MATHEMATICS

 

PREFACE 1

 

I. A BOOLIAN ALGEBRA WITH ONE CONSTANT (1880) 12

 

II. THE ESSENCE OF REASONING (1893)

 1. Some Historical Notes 21

 2. The Proposition 38

 3. The Nature of Inference 47

 

III. SECOND INTENTIONAL LOGIC (1893) 80

 

IV. THE LOGIC OF QUANTITY (1893)

 1. Arithmetical Propositions 85

 2. Transitive and Comparative Relations 94

 3. Enumerable Collections 100

 4. Linear Sequences 107

 5. The Method of Limits 113

 6. The Continuum 121

 7. The Immediate Neighborhood 125

 8. Linear Surfaces 128

 9. The Logical and the Quantitative Algebra 132

 10. The Algebra of Real Quaternions 138

 11. Measurement 142

 

V. A THEORY ABOUT QUANTITY (1897)

 1. The Cardinal Numerals 153

 2. Precepts for the Construction of the System of Abstract Numbers 160

 3. Application to the Theory of Arithmetic 163

 

VI. MULTITUDE AND NUMBER (1897)

 1. The Enumerable 170

 2. The Denumerable 188

 3. The Primipostnumeral 200

 4. The Secundopostnumeral and Larger Collections 213

 5. Continua 219

 

VII. THE SIMPLEST MATHEMATICS (1902)

 1. The Essence of Mathematics 227

 2. Division of Pure Mathematics 245

 3. The Simplest Branch of Mathematics 250

 4. Trichotomic Mathematics 307

 

VIII. NOTES ON THE LIST OF POSTULATES OF DR. HUNTINGTON'S SECTION 2 (1904) 324

 

IX. ORDINALS (1905) 331

 

X. ANALYSIS OF SOME DEMONSTRATIONS CONCERNING POSITIVE INTEGERS (1905) 341

 

BOOK II. EXISTENTIAL GRAPHS

 

1. EULER'S DIAGRAMS

 1. Logical Diagram 347

 2. Of Euler's Diagrams 350

 

2. SYMBOLIC LOGIC 372

 

3. EXISTENTIAL GRAPHS

 A. The Conventions

  1. Alpha Part 394

  2. Beta Part 403

  3. Gamma Part 409

 B. Rules of Transformation

  1. Alpha Part 414

  2. Beta Part 416

 

4. ON EXISTENTIAL GRAPHS, EULER'S DIAGRAMS, AND LOGICAL ALGEBRA

 1. Introduction 418

 Part I. Principles of Interpretation

  A. FUNDAMENTAL CONVENTIONS

   1. Of Conventions Nos. 1 and 2 424

   2. Of Convention No. 3 435

   3. Of Conventions Nos. 4 to 9 438

  B. DERIVED PRINCIPLES OF INTERPRETATION

   1. Of the Pseudograph and Connected Signs 454

   2. Selectives and Proper Names 460

   3. Of Abstraction and Entia Rationis 463

  C. RECAPITULATION 472

 Part II. The Principles of Illative Transformation

  A. BASIC PRINCIPLES

   1. Some and Any 475

   2. Rules for Dinected Graphs 485

  B. RULES FOR LINES OF IDENTITY 499

  C. BASIC CATEGORICAL RULES FOR THE ILLATIVE

   TRANSFORMATION OF ALL GRAPHS 505

 

5. THE GAMMA PART OF EXISTENTIAL GRAPHS 510

 

6. PROLEGOMENA TO AN APOLOGY FOR PRAGMATICISM

 1. Signs 530

 2. Collections 532

 3. Graphs and Signs 533

 4. Universes and Predicaments 539

 5. Tinctured Existential Graphs 552

 

7. AN IMPROVEMENT ON THE GAMMA GRAPHS 573

 

BOOK III. THE AMAZING MAZES

 

1. THE FIRST CURIOSITY

 1. Statement of the First Curiosity 585

 2. Explanation of Curiosity the First 594

 3. A Note on Continuity 639

 

2. A SECOND CURIOSITY 643

 

3. ANOTHER CURIOSITY

 1. Collections and Multitudes 647

 2. Cardinal and Ordinal Numbers 657

 

 

  Volume V

 

 Pragmatism and Pragmaticism

 

PREFACE

 1. A Definition of Pragmatic and Pragmatism 1

 2. The Architectonic Construction of Pragmatism 5

 3. Historical Affinities and Genesis 11

 

BOOK I. LECTURES ON PRAGMATISM

 

LECTURE I. PRAGMATISM: THE NORMATIVE SCIENCES

 1. Two Statements of the Pragmatic Maxim 14

 2. The Meaning of Probability 19

 3. The Meaning of "Practical" Consequences 25

 4. The Relations of the Normative Sciences 34

 

LECTURE II. THE UNIVERSAL CATEGORIES

 1. Presentness 41

 2. Struggle 45

 3. Laws: Nominalism 59

 

LECTURE III. THE CATEGORIES CONTINUED

 1. Degenerate Thirdness 66

 2. The Seven Systems of Metaphysics 77

 3. The Irreducibility of the Categories 82

 

LECTURE IV. THE REALITY OF THIRDNESS

 1. Scholastic Realism 93

 2. Thirdness and Generality 102

 3. Normative Judgments 108

 4. Perceptual Judgments 115

 

LECTURE V. THREE KINDS OF GOODNESS

 1. The Divisions of Philosophy 120

 2. Ethical and Esthetical Goodness 129

 3. Logical Goodness 137

 

LECTURE VI. THREE TYPES OF REASONING

 1. Perceptual Judgments and Generality 151

 2. The Plan and Steps of Reasoning 158

 3. Inductive Reasoning 167

 4. Instinct and Abduction 171

 5. The Meaning of an Argument 175

 

LECTURE VII. PRAGMATISM AND ABDUCTION

 1. The Three Cotary Propositions 180

 2. Abduction and Perceptual Judgments 182

 3. Pragmatism -- the Logic of Abduction 195

 4. The Two Functions of Pragmatism 206

 

BOOK II. PUBLISHED PAPERS

 

I. QUESTIONS CONCERNING CERTAIN FACULTIES CLAIMED FOR MAN

 Question 1. Whether by the simple contemplation of a cognition, independently of any previous knowledge and without reasoning from signs, we are enabled rightly to judge whether that cognition has been determined by a previous cognition or whether it refers immediately to its object 213

 Question 2. Whether we have an intuitive self-consciousness 225

 Question 3. Whether we have an intuitive power of distinguishing between the subjective elements of different kinds of cognitions 238

 Question 4. Whether we have any power of introspection, or whether our whole knowledge of the internal world is derived from the observation of external facts 244

 Question 5. Whether we can think without signs 250

 Question 6. Whether a sign can have any meaning, if by its definition it is the sign of

something absolutely incognizable 254

 Question 7. Whether there is any cognition not determined by a previous cognition 259

 

II. SOME CONSEQUENCES OF FOUR INCAPACITIES

 1. The Spirit of Cartesianism 264

 2. Mental Action 266

 3. Thought-Signs 283

 4. Man, a Sign 310

 

III. GROUNDS OF VALIDITY OF THE LAWS OF LOGIC:

FURTHER CONSEQUENCES OF FOUR INCAPACITIES

 1. Objections to the Syllogism 318

 2. The Three Kinds of Sophisms 333

 3. The Social Theory of Logic 341

 

IV. THE FIXATION OF BELIEF

 1. Science and Logic 358

 2. Guiding Principles 365

 3. Doubt and Belief 370

 4. The End of Inquiry 374

 5. Methods of Fixing Belief 377

 

V. HOW TO MAKE OUR IDEAS CLEAR

 1. Clearness and Distinctness 388

 2. The Pragmatic Maxim 394

 3. Some Applications of the Pragmatic Maxim 403

 4. Reality 405

 

VI. WHAT PRAGMATISM IS

 1. The Experimentalists' View of Assertion 411

 2. Philosophical Nomenclature 413

 3. Pragmaticism 414

 4. Pragmaticism and Hegelian Absolute Idealism 436

 

VII. ISSUES OF PRAGMATICISM

 1. Six Characters of Critical Common-Sensism 438

 2. Subjective and Objective Modality 453

 

BOOK III. UNPUBLISHED PAPERS

 

1. A SURVEY OF PRAGMATICISM

 1. The Kernel of Pragmatism 464

 2. The Valency of Concepts 469

 3. Logical Interpretants 470

 4. Other Views of Pragmatism 494

 

2. PRAGMATICISM AND CRITICAL COMMON-SENSISM 497

 

3. CONSEQUENCES OF CRITICAL COMMON-SENSISM

 1. Individualism 502

 2. Critical Philosophy and the Philosophy of Common-Sense 505

 3. The Generality of the Possible 526

 4. Valuation 533

 

4. BELIEF AND JUDGMENT

 1. Practical and Theoretical Beliefs 538

 2. Judgment and Assertion 546

 

5. TRUTH

 1. Truth as Correspondence 549

 2. Truth and Satisfaction 555

 3. Definitions of Truth 565

 

6. METHODS FOR ATTAINING TRUTH

 1. The First Rule of Logic 574

 2. On Selecting Hypotheses 590

 

APPENDIX

 1. Knowledge 605

 2. Representationism 607

 3. Ultimate 608

 4. Mr. Peterson's Proposed Discussion 610

 

 

  Volume VI

 

 Scientific Metaphysics

 

PREFACE

 1. The Backward State of Metaphysics 1

 2. The Problems of Metaphysics 6

 

BOOK I. ONTOLOGY AND COSMOLOGY

 

A. Tychism

 

CHAPTER 1. THE ARCHITECTURE OF THEORIES

 1. Philosophic Architectonic 7

 2. Three Theories of Evolution 13

 3. The Law of Habit 18

 4. Objective Idealism 24

 5. The Nature of Space 26

 6. First, Second, and Third 32

 

CHAPTER 2. THE DOCTRINE OF NECESSITY EXAMINED

 1. The Mechanical Philosophy 35

 2. Necessity Considered as a Postulate 39

 3. The Observational Evidence for Necessitarianism 43

 4. Absolute Chance 47

 

CHAPTER 3. CAUSATION AND FORCE

 1. Physical Causation 66

 2. Psychical Causation 70

 3. Non-Conservative Forces 71

 4. Fortuitous Distributions 74

 5. Space 82

 6. Time 86

 

CHAPTER 4. VARIETY AND UNIFORMITY

 1. Variety 88

 2. Uniformity 98

 

B. Synechism and Agapism

 

CHAPTER 5. THE LAW OF MIND

 1. Introduction 102

 2. What the Law Is 104

 3. Individuality of Ideas 105

 4. Continuity of Ideas 107

 5. Infinity and Continuity, in General 112

 6. Analysis of Time 127

 7. That Feelings Have Intensive Continuity 132

 8. That Feelings Have Spatial Extension 133

 9. Affections of Ideas 135

 10. Ideas Cannot be Connected Except by Continuity 143

 11. Mental Law Follows the Forms of Logic 144

 12. Uncertainty of Mental Action 147

 13. Restatement of the Law 150

 14. Personality 155

 15. Communication 158

 16. Conclusion 163

 

CHAPTER 6. THE CONTINUUM

 1. Kant's Definition 164

 2. Synechism 169

 3. Continuity Redefined 174

 4. Achilles and the Tortoise 177

 

CHAPTER 7. THE LOGIC OF CONTINUITY

 1. Potential Aggregates 185

 2. The Logic of the Universe 189

 3. Circular Continua; Time and Space 210

 

CHAPTER 8. OBJECTIVE LOGIC

 1. The Origin of the Universe 214

 2. Quale-Consciousness 222

 

CHAPTER 9. MAN'S GLASSY ESSENCE

 1. The Constitution of Matter 238

 2. Protoplasm 246

 3. The Physiology of Habit 259

 4. Tychistic Idealism 264

 5. The Nature of Personality 268

 

CHAPTER 10. MIND AND MATTER

 1. The Connection between Mind and Matter 272

 2. The Materialistic Aspect of Reasoning 278

 

CHAPTER 11. EVOLUTIONARY LOVE

 1. At First Blush. Counter-Gospels 287

 2. Second Thoughts. Irenica 296

 3. A Third Aspect. Discrimination 306

 

CHAPTER 12. NOTES ON METAPHYSICS

 1. Relations and Relationships 318

 2. Mathematical and Real Time 325

 3. Externality and Reality 327

 4. Dyadic and Triadic Action 329

 5. Essence and Existence 333

 6. Modes of Being 338

 7. Reality and Existence 349

 8. Truth, Being, and Nothing 350

 9. Matter and Form 353

 10. Possibility, Impossibility, and Possible 364

 11. Virtual 372

 12. Unity and Plurality 373

 13. Whole and Parts 381

 14. Kind 384

 15. Perseity and Per Se 385

 16. Priority, Prior, and Prius 386

 17. Proximate 390

 18. Sufficient Reason 393

 

BOOK II. RELIGION

 

CHAPTER 1. THE ORDER OF NATURE

 1. The Significance of Order 395

 2. Uniformities 398

 3. Induction 408

 4. Mind and Nature 414

 5. Design 419

 

CHAPTER 2. A RELIGION OF SCIENCE

 1. The Marriage of Religion and Science 428

 2. What is Christian Faith? 435

 3. The Church 449

 

CHAPTER 3. A NEGLECTED ARGUMENT FOR THE REALITY OF GOD

 1. Musement 452

 2. The Hypothesis of God 466

 3. The Three Stages of Inquiry 468

 4. The Validity of the Three Stages 474

 5. Pragmaticism 478

 6. Additament 486

 7. Knowledge of God 492

 

CHAPTER 4. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS CONCERNING MY BELIEF IN GOD

 1. The Reality of God 494

 2. Creation 505

 3. God's Purpose 507

 4. Omniscience 508

 5. Omnipotence 509

 6. Infallibility 510

 7. Miracles 511

 8. Prayer 515

 9. Immortality 519

 

CHAPTER 5. HUME ON MIRACLES

 1. The Nature of Hypotheses 522

 2. The Testing of Hypotheses 526

 3. The Meaning of Miracles 537

 4. Butler's Analogy 547

 

CHAPTER 6. SCIENCE AND IMMORTALITY

 1. Psychic Research 548

 2. The Breakdown of the Mechanical Philosophy 553

 

CHAPTER 7. LOGIC AND SPIRITUALISM 557

 

APPENDIX

 A. Reply to the Necessitarians; Rejoinder to Dr. Carus 588

 B. Nominalism Versus Realism 619

 C. What is Meant by "Determined"? 625

 

 

  Volume VII

 

 Science and Philosophy

 

BOOK I. EXPERIMENTAL SCIENCE

 

Chapter 1. MEASUREMENT OF THE FORCE OF GRAVITY

 1. A Source of Error in Pendulum Measurements 1

 2. Six Reasons for the Prosecution of Pendulum Experiments 13

 

Chapter 2. SMALL DIFFERENCES OF SENSATION

 1. Original Paper 21

 2. Later Reflections 36

 

BOOK II. SCIENTIFIC METHOD

 

Chapter 1. SCIENTIFIC METHOD

 1. Science 49

 2. Logic and Scientific Method 59

 3. Scientific Method 79

 4. Simplicity 92

 5. Kinds of Reasoning 97

 6. Kinds of Induction 110

 7. Uniformity of Nature 131

 

Chapter 2. ECONOMY OF RESEARCH

 1. Original Paper 139

 2. Later Reflections 158

 

Chapter 3. THE LOGIC OF DRAWING HISTORY FROM ANCIENT DOCUMENTS

 1. Abstract 162

 2. The Theory of Balancing Likelihoods 164

 3. Criticism of the Theory of Balancing Likelihoods 168

 4. The Logic of Science 183

 5. Regularity and Explanation 189

 6. Abduction, Induction, and Deduction 202

 7. Three Kinds of Induction 208

 8. Abduction 218

 9. The Logic of History 223

 10. Application of the Method 233

 

Chapter 4. NOTES ON SCIENCE

 1. The Study of Great Men 256

 2. The History of Science 267

 3. Measurement 280

 

Chapter 5. THE LOGIC OF 1873

 1. Investigation 313

 2. Logic 326

 3. Observation and Reasoning 327

 4. Reality 336

 5. Time and Thought 346

 6. Belief 354

 7. Pragmatism 358

 

BOOK III. PHILOSOPHY OF MIND

 

Chapter 1. PSYCHOGNOSY

 1. Introduction 362

 2. Consciousness and Purpose 364

 3. Mind and Body 368

 4. Nomological Psychognosy 373

 5. Psychology 376

 6. Classificatory Psychognosy 378

 

Chapter 2. ASSOCIATION

 1. General Characteristics of Mental Action 388

 2. Contiguity and Resemblance 391

 3. Defence of Author's Opinions Stated in [Sec. 2] 393

 4. Psychological Truths Needed in Logic 418

 5. Theoretical Interest 433

 6. Experience and Inference 437

 7. Uncontrolled Inference 444

 8. Association and Inference 451

 9. Association and the Law of Mind 463

 

Chapter 3. HABIT

 1. Laws of Physics 468

 2. Non-Conservative Actions 471

 3. Relative and Absolute Motion 484

 4. Psychical Action 493

 5. Association 498

 6. Law of Action of Ideas 500

 7. Physics and Psychics 505

 8. Evolution of the Laws of Nature 512

 9. Chance and Law 518

 

Chapter 4. CONSCIOUSNESS

 1. Categories of Experience 524

 2. Forms of Consciousness 539

 3. Consciousness and Reasoning 553

 4. What is the Use of Consciousness? 559

 5. Synechism and Immortality 565

 6. Consciousness and Language 579

 

Chapter 5. TELEPATHY AND PERCEPTION

 1. Telepathy 597

 2. The Scientific Attitude 604

 3. Perception 615

 4. A Programme 637

 5. The Percipuum 642

 6. Conclusion 682

 

 

  Volume VIII

 

 Reviews, Correspondence, and Bibliography

 

BOOK I. REVIEWS

 

1. JOHN VENN, THE LOGIC OF CHANCE 1

 

2. FRASER'S EDITION OF THE WORKS OF GEORGE BERKELEY

 1. Introduction 7

 2. Formulation of Realism 12

 3. Scotus, Ockam, and Hobbes 18

 4. Berkeley's Philosophy 26

 5. Science and Realism 38

 

3. JOSIAH ROYCE, THE RELIGIOUS ASPECT OF PHILOSOPHY

 1. The Concept of Reality 39

 2. Comments on Royce's Philosophy 45

 

4. WILLIAM JAMES, THE PRINCIPLES OF PSYCHOLOGY

 1. Review in The Nation 55

 2. Questions on William James's The Principles of Psychology 72

 

5. ON NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY 91

 

6. JOSIAH ROYCE, THE WORLD AND THE INDIVIDUAL

 1. First Series: The Four Historical Conceptions of Being 100

 2. Second Series: Nature, Man, and the Moral Order 117

 

7. KARL PEARSON, THE GRAMMAR OF SCIENCE

 1. The Justification of Scientific Research 132

 2. Natural Law 144

 

8. REVIEW OF A BOOK ON ETHICS 157

 

9. J.M. BALDWIN, DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY AND PSYCHOLOGY, VOL. II 164

 

10. LADY WELBY, WHAT IS MEANING? 171

 

11. C.A. STRONG, WHY THE MIND HAS A BODY 186

 

12. JOHN DEWEY, STUDIES IN LOGICAL THEORY 188

 

13. ON PRAGMATISM, FROM A REVIEW OF A BOOK ON COSMOLOGY 191

 

14. WILHELM WUNDT, PRINCIPLES OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY 196

 

BOOK II. CORRESPONDENCE

 

1. TO SIGNOR CALDERONI, ON PRAGMATICISM 205

 

2. TO PAUL CARUS, ON "ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE LOGIC OF SCIENCE" 214

 

3. TO JOHN DEWEY, ON THE NATURE OF LOGIC 239

 

4. TO WILLIAM T. HARRIS, ON MIND 245

 

5. TO WILLIAM JAMES

 1. Pragmatism 249

 2. Categories 264

 3. Consciousness 270

 4. Free Will 306

 5. Signs 313

 

6. TO CHRISTINE LADD-FRANKLIN, ON COSMOLOGY 316

 

7. TO F.C.S. SCHILLER, ON PRAGMATISM 319

 

8. TO LADY WELBY

 1. On Signs and the Categories 327

 2. On the Classification of Signs 342

 

9. TO F.A. WOODS, ON "WOULD BE" 380

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 Introduction

 List of Abbreviations

 I. General

 II. Items from The Nation

 III. Miscellaneous

 Cross Reference Index

 

 

 

HyC

 

 

 

 

Process Thought: The Adventurous Frontier
The pH Factor
Hartshorne's 42 Philosophical Discoveries
Goethe's Process Poem
Hartshorne's New Book: A Cause for Celebration
The Many and the One
Bertrand Russell’s "Portrait" of Whitehead
Special Focus on Charles Hartshorne
Table of Contents: C.S. Peirce's Collected Papers
Hartshorne Entries in The Encyclopedia of Religion
A Logic of Ultimate Contrasts
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