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The Poetics of Perception
Dogen's Use of Chiasmus in Shobogenzo

 

 

 

Numerous and Numinous:

Dogen’s Use of Chiasmus in His Masterwork

Shobogenzo

正法眼藏

 

Hyatt Carter

 

 

“Ask not what your country can do for you,

ask what you can do for your country.”

 

That sentence, spoken by President John Kennedy in a famous speech, is a good example of chiasmus, a rhetorical figure that reverses the terms of the two clauses that make up a sentence, or a part of a sentence.

 

Chiasmus is thus a linguistic twist or turn that you can use to express a crosswise mode of thought. Chiasmus (ky-AZ-mus) means “a crossing,” from the Greek letter chi, X, a cross. You “cross” the terms of one clause by reversing their order in the next.

 

The Greek letter chi ( χ ), the “chi” of chiasmus, is my symbol for chiasmic structures, or crosswise modes of thinking and expression. A memorable line by Dogen, shimmering with chiasmicity, can be represented as:

 

He seems only to understand the many, forgetting the one,

χ

or to realize only the one, forgetting the many.

 

As I have demonstrated in other essays, the concept of “chiasmus” can be generalized so that it is not only a figure of speech but also, and more importantly, a figure of thought and a figure of reality. Indeed, Dogen, who was especially keen on chiasmus, spices his writings frequently with this figure and turns to it to express some of his most penetrating insights.

 

The frequency of this figure in his masterwork, Shobogenzo, reveals that the structure of his thought is deeply chiasmic. A complete listing of his use of chiasmus that I found in a recent reading of Shobogenzo fills 57 pages of a MS Word document.

 

Dogen’s Shobogenzo is a big book. The Nishijima-Cross translation, a four-volume set, runs over a thousand pages and consists of 95 chapters.

 

My list of chiasmi in Shobogenzo follows their order of appearance in the book, chapter by chapter. For ease of comparison, the English translation of each chiasmus is followed by Dogen’s original Japanese. The list is arranged in sections according to chapter, and the heading before each section, indented and placed on three separate lines, provides this information:

 

 (1) the transliterated Japanese title of the chapter,

 (2) the chapter in kanji, or Chinese characters, and 

 (3) an English translation of the title.

 

Unless otherwise noted, the English translations are from Master Dogen’s Shobogenzo (four volumes) by Gudo Nishijima and Chodo Cross. My source for the Japanese text is the Shomonji website online at:

 

http://www.shomonji.or.jp/soroku

 

And so, without further ado, here is the list of Dogen’s use of chiasmus in Shobogenzo:

 

 

Book One

 

 Bendowa

 辨道話

 A Talk about Pursuing the Truth

 

Grass, trees, fences, and walls become able to preach for all souls, [both] common people and saints; and conversely, all souls, [both] common people and saints, preach for grass, trees, fences, and walls.

草木牆壁よく凡聖含靈のために宣揚、凡聖含靈はかへつて草木牆壁のために演暢

 

■□■□

 

As it is already realization in practice, realization is endless;

as it is practice in realization, practice is beginningless.

すでになれば、證にきはなく

證の修なれば、修にはじめなし。

 

■□■□

 

Still more, those who think that worldly affairs hinder the Buddha-Dharma only know that there is no Buddha-Dharma in the world; they do not know that there are no worldly dharmas in the state of Buddha.

いはむや世務は佛法をさふとおもへるものは、ただ世中に佛法なしとのみしりて、佛中に世法なき事をいまだしらざるなり。

 

 

 Maka-Hannya-Haramitsu

 摩訶般若波羅蜜

 The Perfection of Wisdom

 

When this principle is preached and realized, it is said that matter is just the immaterial and the immaterial is just matter. Matter is matter, the immaterial is the immaterial.

この宗旨開演現成するにいはく、色即是空なり、空即是色なり、色是色なり、空即空なり

 

■□■□

 

So researching prajna is space itself. Space is the research of prajna.

しかあれば、學般若これ虛空なり、虛空學般若なり

■□■□

 

[Because] the prajna-paramita is no different from the buddha-bhagavats, and the buddha-bhagavats are no different from the prajna-paramita.

般若波羅蜜多、不異佛薄伽梵、佛薄伽梵、不異般若波羅蜜多。

 

 

 Genjo-Koan

 現成公案

 The Realized Universe

 

Conveying oneself toward all things to carry out practice-enlightenment is delusion.

All things coming and carrying out practice-enlightenment through the self is realization.

Those who greatly realize delusion are buddhas.

Those who are greatly deluded in realization are living beings.

自己をはこびて萬法を修證するを迷とす、

萬法すすみて自己を修證するはさとりなり。

迷を大悟するは諸佛なり、

悟に大迷なるは眾生なり。

 

■□■□

 

When one side is illumined, the other is darkened.

一方スルトキハ、一方ハクラシ

 

■□■□

 

There is a trace of realization that cannot be grasped. We endlessly express the ungraspable trace of realization.

悟迹の休歇なるあり、休歇なる悟迹を長長出ならしむ。

 

■□■□

 

Birds are life, and fish are life. It may be that life is birds and that life is fish.

以鳥爲命あり、以魚爲命あり。以命爲鳥なるべし、以命爲魚なるべし

 

■□■□

 

When we find this place, this action is inevitably realized as the Universe. When we find this way, this action is inevitably the realized Universe [itself].

このところをうればこの行李したがひて現成公案このみちをうればこの行李したがひて現成公案なり

 

 

 Ikka-No-Myoju

 一顆明珠

 One Bright Pearl

 

“The whole of the ten directions” describes the ceaseless [process] of pursuing things to make them into self, and of pursuing self to make it into something.

盡十方といふは、逐物爲己、逐己爲物未休なり

 

 

 Soku-Shin-Ze-Butsu

 即心是佛
 Mind Here and Now Is Buddha

 

The title, “Mind Here and Now Is Buddha” (即心是佛), is a famous saying in the Zen tradition. In this chapter, Dogen performs a most ingenious feat—he takes the saying apart and then puts it back together, changing the order of the four characters in various ways to yield new linguistic units of meaning.

 

Here is the saying, followed by  permutations he presents for our inspection:

 

 即心是佛

  Soku shin ze butsu

  “mind here and now is buddha”

 心即佛是

  Shin soku butsu ze

  “the mind which is buddha is this”

 佛即是心

  Butsu soku ze shin

  “buddha actually is just the mind”

 是佛心即

  Ze butsu shin soku

  “this buddha-mind is now here”

 即心佛是

  Soku shin butsu ze

  “mind-and-buddha here and now is true”

 是佛即心

  Ze butsu soku shin

  “concrete buddha is mind here and now”

 

The different meanings are made possible because, with a change of order, the same word can function in different ways grammatically, such as adjective, verb, or conjunction. For more about this see my essay, “Dogen’s Foreplay with Hartshorne’s Doctrinal Matrices,” available on this site.

 

■□■□

 

The mind that has been authentically transmitted means one mind as all dharmas, and all dharmas as one mind.

いはゆる正傳しきたれるといふは、一心一切法、一切法一心なり

 

 Raihai-Tokuzui

 禮拜得髓

 Prostrating to Attainment of Marrow

 

Long ago, in the Tang dynasty, Great Master Shinsai of Joshu established the mind and set off as a wayfarer. In the story he says, “I shall question anyone who is superior to me, even a child of seven. And I shall teach anyone who is inferior to me, even a man of a hundred.”

むかし、唐朝趙州眞際大師、こころをおこして發足行脚せしちなみにいふ、たとひ七歳なりとも、われよりも勝ならば、われ、かれにとふべし。たとひ百歳なりとも、われよりも劣ならば、われ、かれををしふべし。

 

 

 Keisei-Sanshiki

 谿聲山色

 Voices of the River-Valley, Form of the Mountains

 

A monk asks Zen Master Chosa [Kei]shin, “How can we make mountains, rivers, and the Earth belong to ourselves?” The Master says, “How can we make ourselves belong to mountains, rivers, and the Earth?”

長沙景岑禪師あるとふいかにしてか山河大地じて自己せしめん。師いはくいかにしてか自己じて山河大地せしめん

 

 

 Shoaku-Makusa

 諸惡莫作

 Not Doing Wrongs

 

There is the Buddhist truth of taking up at one moment, and letting go at one moment. At just this moment, the truth is known that wrong does not violate a person, and the truth is clarified that a person does not destroy wrong.

一拈一放道理あり

正當恁麼時、すなはちををかさざる道理しられ、人をやぶらざる道理あきらめらる

 

■□■□

 

When we cause even the moun­tains, rivers, and the Earth, and the sun, moon, and stars, to do practice, the mountains, rivers, and the Earth, the sun, moon, and stars, in their turn, make us practice.

山河大地、日月星辰までも修行せしむるに、山河大地、日月星辰、かへりてわれらを修行せしむるなり

 

■□■□

 

The buddhas and the patriarchs have never made the teachings, practice, and experience tainted, and so the teachings, practice, and experience have never hindered the buddhas and the patriarchs.

諸佛諸組、かつて教行證をして染汚せしむることなきがゆゑに、教行證いまだ諸佛諸組罣礙することなし

 

■□■□

 

The seeds of buddhahood arise from conditions and, this being so, conditions arise from the seeds of buddhahood.

佛種從緣起なれば緣從佛種起なり

■□■□

 

Learning in practice like this is the realized Universe and it is Universal realization—we consider it from the stand­point of the subject and we consider it from the standpoint of the object.

恁麼參學、見成せる公案なり、公案見成なり。主より功夫、賓より功夫

 

■□■□

 

[The re­lation between] wrongs and not committing is not only “a well looking at a donkey;” it is the well looking at the well, the donkey looking at the donkey, a human being looking at a human being, and a mountain looking at a mountain. Because there is “preaching of this principle of mutual accordance,” wrongs are not committing.

諸惡莫作、井をみるのみにあらず、井をみるなり。驢をみるなり、人をみるなり、山をみるなり。說箇應底道理あるゆゑに、諸惡莫作なり

 

■□■□

 

“It is just like space:” it is the clapping of hands to the left and the clapping of hands to the right. “It is like the moon [reflected] in water:” and the water restricted by the moon.

猶若虛空、左拍右拍なり。如水中月、被水月礙。

 

■□■□

 

The many kinds of right are real dharmas, but real dharmas are not many kinds of right.

衆善諸法なりといふとも、諸法衆善にあらず

 

 

 Uji

 有時

 Being-Time

 

Time is already none other than beings,

and beings are all none other than time.

時すでにこれ有なり、

有はみな時なり。

 

■□■□

 

The arousing of aspiration [in different] minds at the selfsame time

is the arousing [at different] times of the selfsame mind.

このゆゑに同時發心あり

同心發時あり

 

■□■□

 

A full being-time half known

is a half being-time fully known.

たとひ半究盡の有時も、

半有時の究盡なり。

 

[The three preceding English translations are by Steven Heine.]

 

■□■□

 

What Daijaku says is not the same as [what] others [can say]. [His] eyebrows and eyes may be the mountains and the seas, because the mountains and the seas are [his] eyebrows and eyes.

大寂道取するところ、餘者とおなじからず。眉目山海なるべし、山海眉目なるゆゑに

 

■□■□

 

Neither is not being right the same as not making himself [act], nor is not making himself [act] the same as not being right. All these [situations] are Existence-Time.

不是不教伊にあらず、不教伊不是にあらずこれらともに有時なり

■□■□

 

Sometimes the will is present but the words are absent,

Sometimes the words are present but the will is absent,

Sometimes the will and the words are both present,

Sometimes the will and the words are  both absent.

有時意到句不到、
有時句到意不到。
有時意句兩倶到、
有時意句倶不到。

 

 

 Sansuigyo

 山水經

 The Sutra of Mountains and Waters

 

There should be investigation both of backward steps and of stepping backward.

退歩歩退、ともに撿點あるべし

 

■□■□

 

Forward walking never ceases, and backward walking never ceases. The moment of forward walking does not oppose backward walking, and the moment of backward walking does not oppose forward walking. We call this virtue the mountains flowing, and we call it the flowing mountains.

進歩いまだやまず、退歩いまだやまず。進歩のとき退歩乖向せず、退歩のとき進歩乖向せずこの功德山流とし、流山とす

■□■□

 

This does not mean that there is water within Buddha-lands, and does not mean that there are Buddha-lands inside water.

しかあれば、佛土のなかにあるにあらず、水裏佛土あるにあらず

 

■□■□

 

Wherever Buddhist patriarchs go water goes, and wherever water goes Buddhist patriarchs are realized.

佛祖のいたるところにはかならずいたる。水のいたるところ、佛祖かならず現成するなり

 

■□■□

 

It is not only that there is water in the world; there are worlds in the world of water.

世界ありいふのみにあらず、水界世界あり

 

 

 Shisho

 嗣書

 The Certificate of Succession

 

It is pitiful that though they appear to be the Buddha’s progeny, they are not the Buddha’s children, and they are not child-buddhas.

あはれむべし、佛種族相似なりといへども、佛子にあらざることを、子佛にあらざることを

 

 Hokke-Ten-Hokke

 法華轉法華

 The Dharma Blossom Turns the Dharma Blossom

 

Herein, all the buddhas of the ten directions and the three times, and beings of anuttara-samyak-sambodhi, have [times of] turning the Flower of Dharma, and have [times of] the Flower of Dharma turning.

これに十方三世一切諸佛、阿耨多羅三藐三菩提衆、轉法華あり、法華轉あり

 

■□■□

 

It is to turn the Flower of Dharma; it is the Flower of Dharma turning.

轉法華なり、法華轉なり

 

■□■□

 

When the mind is in delusion, the Flower of Dharma turns.

When the mind is in realization, we turn the Flower of Dharma.

心迷法華轉、心悟轉法華。

■□■□

 

Hereafter the Flower of Dharma began to be expounded as the Flower of Dharma turning and turning of the Dharma-Flower.

これより法華轉轉法華との法華開演するなり

 

■□■□

 

When we look at atoms that does not mean we fail to see the world of Dharma. When we are experiencing the world of Dharma, that does not mean we fail to experience atoms.

微塵をみるとき法界をみざるにあらず。法界するに微塵せざるにあらず

 

■□■□

 

There is turning the Flower of Dharma as “matter just being the immaterial,” which is beyond either disappearance or appearance. There is turning the Flower of Dharma as “the immaterial just being mat­ter,” which may be absence of life and death.

色即是空轉法華あり、若退若出にあらず。空即是色轉法華あり、無有生死なるべし

 

■□■□

 

Vulture Peak exists inside the stupa, and the treasure stupa exists on Vulture Peak.

塔中靈山あり。靈山寶塔あり

 

■□■□

 

Some, moreover, have attained the Dharma-state of an eminent person by relying on this Sutra. But no-one has grasped the point of the Flower of Dharma turning, or mastered the point of turning the Flower of Dharma, in the manner of our founding Patriarch, the eternal Buddha of Sokei.

このによりて、上人をうるもあれどもいまわれらが高祖曹谿古佛のごとく、法華轉宗旨をえたるなし、轉法華宗旨つかふあらず

 

■□■□

 

The dharma blossom turns the deluded mind,

The awakened mind turns the dharma blossom.

When practice is fully realized like this,

The dharma blossom turns the dharma blossom.

心迷法華轉、

心悟轉法華。
究盡能如是、

法華轉法華。

 

 

 Shin-Fukatoku

 心不可得

 Mind Cannot Be Grasped [I]

 

Tokuzan might ask the old woman, “Present mind cannot be grasped, past mind cannot be grasped, and future mind cannot be grasped. Which mind do you now in tend to refresh with rice-cakes?”

 

If he questions her like this, the old woman should say at once to Tokuzan, “The Master knows only that rice-cakes cannot refresh the mind. You do not know that mind refreshes rice-cakes, and you do not know that mind refreshes mind.”  

 

婆子もし德山とはん、現在心不可得、過去心不可得、未來心不可得。いまもちひをしていづれのをかぜんとかする

 

かくのごとくとはんに、婆子すなはち德山にむかふていふべし、和尚はただもちひのずべからずとのみしりて、心のもちひをずることをしらず、心ずることをもしらず

 

 

 Kokyo

 古鏡

 The Eternal Mirror

 

Was the great round mirror born with the child, or was the child born with the great round mirror? It may also be possible that the births took place before or after [each other].

大圓鑑童子同生せるか、童子大圓鑑同生せるかまさに前後生もあるべし

 

■□■□

 

Saying that this mirror has no blurs on the inside or the outside neither describes an inside that depends on an outside, nor an outside blurred by an inside. There being no face or back, two individu­als are able to see the same. Minds, and eyes, are alike.

このかがみ、内外にくもりなしといふは、外にまつ内にあらず、内にくもれる外にあらず。面背あることなし、兩箇おなじく得見あり。心とあひにたり

 

■□■□

 

Is there eternity in the clear mirror, or not? Is there clarity in the eternal mirror, or not?

明鏡道理ありやなしや、古鏡道理ありやなしや

 

■□■□

 

To speak tentatively, the backs of monkeys might be backed with the eternal mirror. Is the back of the eternal mirror backed with monkeys?

こころみにいはくさるのうらは古鏡にてすべし、古鏡のうらは獼猴にてするか

 

■□■□

 

This being so, we learn in practice that flaws appear even on the eternal mirror and that even [mirrors] on which flaws have appeared are the eternal mirror; this is learning the eternal mirror in practice.

しかあれば、古鏡にも瑕生なり、瑕生なるも古鏡なりと參學するこれ古鏡參學するなり

 

■□■□

 

This is neither polishing the self nor the self polishing; it is polishing the eternal mirror.

磨自、自磨にあらざれども、磨古鏡なり

 

 

 Kankin

 看經

 Reading Sutras

 

The words into which the Venerable One has now put his total effort [mean] not only that the out-breath does not follow circumstances, but also that circumstances do not follow the out-breath.

いま尊者渾力道、出息衆緣不隨なるのみにあらず、衆緣出息不隨なり

 

■□■□

 

Thus, it is beyond the calculation of wise intelligence, it is beyond the estimation of intelligent wisdom; it is beyond the consideration of non-wise intelligence, and it is beyond the reach of non-intelligent wisdom.

このゆゑに、有智測量にあらず、有知卜度にあらず。無智商量にあらず、無知所到にあらず

 

Reformatted to reveal a pattern:

 

このゆゑに

有智測量にあらず

有知卜度にあらず

無智商量にあらず

無知所到にあらず

 

■□■□

 

Evidently, the recitation of the whole of the sutras or half of the sutras amounts to three scrolls of sutras in the old woman’s case. “I have finished reciting the sutras” is the whole of Joshu’s sutra. In brief, the situation of his reciting the whole of the sutras is as follows: There is Joshu going around the Zazen chair; there is the Zazen chair going around Joshu, there is Joshu going around Joshu, and there is the Zazen chair going around the Zazen chair. At the same time, all instances of reciting the sutras are neither limited to going around a Zazen chair, nor limited to a Zazen chair going around.

あきらかにしりぬ。轉一藏半藏婆子經三卷なり。轉藏已畢趙州經一藏なりおほよそ轉大藏經のていたらくは、禪牀をめぐる趙州あり、禪牀ありて趙州をめぐる。趙州をめぐる趙州あり、禪牀をめぐる禪牀ありしかあれども、一切轉藏、遶禪牀のみにあらず、禪牀遶のみにあらず

■□■□

 

The words “I just need to shade my eyes” spoken now are words naturally spoken by shaded eyes themselves. Shading the eyes describes getting rid of eyes and getting rid of sutras, it describes complete eye shading and completely shaded eyes. Shading the eyes means opening the eyes in the shaded state, invigorating the eyes within shade, invigorating shade within eyes, adding an extra eyelid, utilizing the eyes within shade, and eyes themselves utilizing shade. This being so, the virtue of shading the eyes is never [mentioned] in any [sutras] other than Eye-sutras. “You would surely pierce holes even in ox-hide” describes complete ox-hide and a complete-hide ox, it describes utilizing the ox to become a hide. This is why [possession of] the skin, flesh, bones, and marrow, and horns on the head, and nostrils, has been seen as the vigorous activity of bulls and cows In copying the Master, the ox becomes the Eyethis is described as shading the eyes. It is the Eye becoming the ox.

いま我要遮眼、遮眼自道處なり。遮眼打失眼睛なり、打失經なり、渾眼遮なり、渾遮眼なり。遮眼遮中開眼なり、遮裡活眼なり、眼裡活遮なり、眼皮上更添一枚皮なり。遮裡拈眼なり、眼自拈遮なりしかあれば、眼睛經にあらざれば遮眼功德いまだあらざるなり。牛皮也須穿、全牛皮なり、全皮牛なり、拈牛作皮なりこのゆゑに、皮肉骨髓、頭角鼻孔牛牸活計とせり。學和尚のとき、牛爲眼睛なるを遮眼とす、眼睛爲牛なり

 

Book Two

 

 

 Bussho

 佛性

 Buddha Nature

 

We understand, and we transcend the understanding, that all rely means total reliance, and reliance on the total.

皆依全依なり、依全なりと會取不會取するなり

■□■□

 

In the fourth patriarch’s words, What name is it?”What means This, and he has dealt

with This as What, which is a name. The realization of What is based on This, and the realization of This is the function of What. The name is This, and is What. We make it into mugwort tea, make it into green tea, and make it into everyday tea and meals.

四祖いはく是何姓は、何は是なり、是を何しきたれり。これ姓なり。何ならしむるは是のゆゑなり。是ならしむるは何の能なり。是也、何也なりこれを蒿湯にも、茶湯にも、家常茶飯ともするなり

 

■□■□

 

The fifth patriarch says, “The Buddha-nature is emptiness, so we call it being without.”

 

This clearly expresses that emptiness is not non-existence. To express that the Buddha-nature is emptiness, we do not say it is half a pound and we do not say it is eight ounces, but we use the words “being without.” We do not call it “emptiness” because it is void, and we do not call it “being without” because it does not exist; because the Buddha-nature is emptiness, we call it “being without.” So real instances of being without are the standard for expressing “emptiness,” and emptiness has the power to express “being without.” This emptiness is beyond the emptiness of “matter is just emptiness.” [At the same time,] “matter is just emptiness” describes neither matter being forcibly made into emptiness nor emptiness being divided up to produce matter. It may describe emptiness in which emptiness is just emptiness. “Emptiness in which emptiness is just emptiness” describes one stone in space. This being so, the fourth patriarch and the fifth patriarch pose questions and make assertions about the Buddha-nature being without, about the Buddha-nature as emptiness, and about the Buddha-nature as Existence.

 

五祖いはく、佛性空故、所以言無。

あきらかに道取、空にあらず。佛性空道取するに、半斤といはず、八兩といはず、無言取するなり。空なるゆゑにといはず、無なるゆゑにといはず、佛性空なるゆゑにといふしかあれば、無片片道取する標榜なり、空道取する力量なりいはゆるの、色即是空にあらず。色即是空といふは、色強爲してとするにあらず、空をわかちて作家せるにあらず。空是空なるべし。空是空といふは、空裏一片石なりしかあればすなはち、佛性無佛性空佛性有、四祖五祖、問取道取。

■□■□

 

Further, I would like to say to Dai-i, “Although you have expressed the truth that ‘All living beings are without the Buddha-nature,’ you have not said that ‘All the Buddha-nature is without living beings,’ and you have not said that ‘All the Buddha­-nature is without the Buddha-nature.’ Still more, you have never seen even in a dream that all buddhas are without the Buddha-nature. Let us see you try [again].”

また、大潙にむかひていふべし。一切衆生無佛性はたとひ道得すといふとも、一切佛性無衆生といはず、一切佛性無佛性といはずいはんや一切諸佛無佛性夢也未見在なり。試擧看。

 

■□■□

 

For example, one sound preaching Dharma is the mo­ment having arrived, and Dharma-preaching as one sound is the arrived momentfor Dharma is one sound, and one sound is Dharma.

たとへば一音をとく時節到來なり。說法一音なる、到來時節なり。法一音なり、一音なるゆゑに

 

 Gyobutsu-Yuigi

 行佛威儀

 The Dignified Behavior of Acting Buddha

 

Acting buddha’s departing and arriving instantaneously cause buddha to act, at which time buddha is just causing action. Here there is giving up the body for the Dharma, and there is giving up the Dharma for the bodynot begrudging body and life, and solely begrudging body and life.

行佛去就これ果然としてぜしむるに、佛すなはちぜしむここに爲法捨身あり、爲身捨法あり。不惜身命あり、但惜身命あり

 

■□■□

 

We should utterly realize dignified behavior, and be­havioral dignity, as the body, in the great truth, being relaxed.

威儀儀威、大道體寬究竟すべし

 

■□■□

 

This attaining of truth is the state of transcending the buddhas and transcending the patriarchs which is the extremely large equaling the small, and the extremely small equaling the large.

得道、極大同小、極小同大超佛越祖なるなり

 

■□■□

 

Blazing flame covers the cosmos: Buddha preaches Dharma.

The cosmos is in blazing flame: Dharma preaches buddha.

烈焔亙天佛說法、
亙天烈焔法說佛。

■□■□

 

Turning the great wheel of Dharma may include turning the self and turning the moment. It is making things progress and throwing oneself into the moment. It may include turning the Dharma and the Dharma turning.

轉大法輪轉自轉機あるべし。展事投機なり、轉法法轉あるべし

 

■□■□

 

Now Engo, in addition, has an expression which is not the same as Gensa and not the same as Seppo: namely, that blazing flame covering the cosmos is Buddha preaching Dharma, and that the cosmos in blazing flame is Dharma preaching buddha.

いま圜悟さらに玄沙ぜず、雪峰ぜざるありいはゆる烈焔亙天はほとけをとくなり、亙天烈焔ほとけをとくなり

 

■□■□

 

That “buddha preaches Dharma” we had heard, but with regard to the fact that Dharma preaches buddha, how deeply enmeshed were we in ignorance?

In summary, the buddhas of the three times are preached in the three times by the Dharma, and the Dharma of the three times is preached in the three times by buddha.

いはゆるほとけをとくきくところなりといへども、法ほとけをとくことはいくかさなりの不知をかわづらひこし
しかあればすなはち、三世諸佛三世をとかれ、三世諸法三世にとかるるなり

 

■□■□

 

In sum, Dharma preaches Buddha, Dharma practices buddha, and Dharma experiences buddha; buddha preaches Dharma, buddha practices buddha, and buddha becomes buddha.

しかあればすなはち、法說佛なり、法行佛なり、法證佛なり。佛說法なり、佛行佛なり、佛作佛なり

 

 

 Bukkyo

 佛教

 The Buddha’s Teaching

 

For this reason, the Buddha’s teaching is just teaching a buddha. It is the perfectly realized virtue of a Buddhist patriarch.

このゆゑに、佛教はすなはち教佛なり、佛祖究盡功德なり

 

■□■□

 

The reason they say that [buddhas] authentically transmit only the one mind, without authentically transmitting the Buddha's teaching, is that they do not know the Buddha-Dharma.

 

Not knowing the one mind as the Buddha’s teaching and not hearing the Buddha’s teaching as the one mind, they say that there is the Buddha’s teaching outside of the one mind.

 

Their “one mind” never having become the one mind, they say that there is a “one mind” outside of the Buddha’s teachings.

 

It may be that their “Buddha’s teachings” have never become the Buddha’s teaching.

 

Although they have transmitted and received the fallacy of “a separate transmission outside the teachings,” because they have never known inside and outside, the logic of their words is not consistent.

 

ただ一心正傳して、佛教正傳せずといふは、佛法をしらざるなり

 

佛教一心をしらず、一心佛教をきかず

 

一心のほかにありといふなんぢが一心、いまだ一心ならず

 

佛教のほかに一心ありといふなんぢが佛教いまだ佛教ならざらん

 

たとひ教外別傳謬說相傳すといふともなんぢいまだ内外をしらざれば、言理符合あらざるなり

Notes:

 

仏教 (BUKKYO), “Buddha-teaching,” is just 教仏 (KYOBUTSU), “teaching-Buddha.” The eternal teaching of the Buddha, and the concrete fact of a Buddhist being taught in the present, are one.

 

教外別傳 (KYOGE-BETSUDEN) is the first line of a four-line poem attributed to Master Bodhidharma. The other three lines are: 不立文字 (FURYU-MONJI), non-dependence on writings; 直指人心 (JIKISHI NINSHIN), direct pointing to the human heart; and見性成佛 (KENSHO-JOBUTSU), seeing one’s nature and becoming buddha.

 

Four-phrases summary of Zen:

 教外別傳

 不立文字。

 直指人心、

 見性成佛。

Outside the teaching, apart from tradition.

Not founded on words or letters.

Directly pointing to the human mind.

Seeing into one’s nature and becoming a Buddha.   

 

■□■□

 

To meet the twelve divisions of the teaching is to meet the Buddhist patriarchs. To speak of the Buddhist patriarchs is to speak of the twelve divisions of the teaching.

十二分教をみるは佛祖をみるなり、佛祖道取するは十二分教を道取するなり

■□■□

 

An extended chiasmic passage:

 

To enter is the basis, and the basis is right from head to tail.

なり、本頭正尾正なり

 

Buddha preaches Dharma, and Dharma preaches Buddha. Dharma is [naturally] preached by Buddha, and Buddha is [naturally] preached by Dharma.

ほとけをとく、法ほとけをとく。法ほとけにとかるほとけにとかる

 

Flame preaches Buddha and preaches Dharma. Buddha preaches flame, and Dharma preaches flame.

火焔ほとけをとき、法をとくほとけ火焔をとき、法火焔をとく

In this Sutra, already there is good cause for the preaching of purpose, and there is good cause for purposeful preaching.

是經すでに說故良以あり、故說良以あり

 

Even if [the Buddha] intends not to preach this Sutra, that is impossible.

是經とかざらんとするに不可なり

 

Therefore he says, “Purposefulness preaches this Sutra.” Purposeful preaching covers the cosmos, and the cosmos is purposeful preaching.

このゆゑに以故說是經といふ。故說亙天なり、亙天故說なり

 

 

 Jinzu

 神通

 Mystical Power

 

The great mystical power entertains small mystical powers, [but] small mystical powers do not know the great mystical power.

大神通は小神通を接す、小神通は大神通をしらず。

 

 

 Daigo

 大悟

 Great Realization

 

From their great realization onwards, Buddhist patriarchs inevitably master learning in practice that is actualized like this; at the same time, great realization which is totally realization is not seen as a “Buddhist patriarch,” and a Buddhist patriarch who is totally a Buddhist patriarch is not “total great realization.”

大悟より佛祖かならず恁麼現成する參學を究竟すといへども、大悟の渾悟を佛祖とせるにはあらず、佛祖の渾佛祖を渾大悟なりとにはあらざるなり。

 

■□■□

 

Thus, recognizing a bandit as a child does not define returning to delusion, and recognizing a child as a bandit does not define returning to delusion.

しかあれば、認賊爲子を却迷とするにあらず、認子爲賊を却迷とするにあらず。

 

 

 Zazenshin

 坐禪箴

 A Needle for Zazen

 

Remember, the words of Daijaku are that to sit in Zazen is, in every case, aiming to become buddha. To sit in Zazen is, in every case, becoming buddha as aiming.

しるべし、大寂、坐禪かならず圖作佛なり、坐禪かならず作佛なり

 

■□■□

 

Nangaku then picks up a tile and starts to polish it on a stone. Daijaku eventually asks, “What is the Master doing?” Truly, who could fail to see that he is polishing a tile? But who can see it as polishing a tile? Rather, the polishing of a tile has [always] been questioned like this: “What are you doing!” The doing of what is always the polishing of a tile. In this land and other worlds, different though they are, polishing a tile may possess an import that has never ceased.

南嶽ときに一塼をとりて石上にあててとぐ。大寂つひにとふにいはく、師、作什麼。まことにたれかこれを磨塼とみざらんたれかこれを磨塼とみんしかあれども、磨塼はかくのごとく作什麼せられきたるなり。作什麼なるはかならず磨塼なり。此土他界ことなりといふとも、磨塼いまだやまざる宗旨あるべし

 

■□■□

 

Even if human sitting naturally appears to be sitting buddha, or a buddha sitting, it may be a case of a human being becoming buddha, or a case of a human being of becoming Buddha There are human beings of becoming buddha, but all human beings are not of becoming buddha. Buddha is not a state of all human beings. All buddhas are not simply all humanity. Therefore, a human being is not always a buddha, and buddha is not always a human being.

人坐のおのづから坐佛佛坐相似なりといへども、人作佛あり、作佛人あるがごとし。作佛人ありといへども、一切人作佛にあらずほとけは一切人にあらず。一切佛一切人のみにあらざるがゆゑに、人かならずにあらず、佛かならずにあらず

 

■□■□

 

Therefore, sensing is beyond touching things, and that which is beyond touching things is sensing.

かるがゆゑに、知不觸事なり、不觸事なり

 

■□■□

 

Flying in the sky is the whole Universebecause the whole Universe is flying in the sky.

飛空盡界なり、盡界飛空なるがゆゑに

 

When the sky is flying away, the birds also are flying away; and when the birds are flying away, the sky also is flying away.

飛去するとき、鳥飛去するなり。鳥飛去するに、空飛去するなり

 

 

 Inmo

 恁麼

 It

 

They are like a stone enveloping a jewel, the jewel not knowing that it is enveloped by a stone, and the stone not knowing that it is enveloping a jewel.

なほしをつつめるが、玉につつまれりともしらず、石をつつめりともしらざるがごとし

 

■□■□

 

A passage on the chiasmicity of “it”—

 

The Great Master says, “To be like that is impossible. Not to be like that is impossible. To be like that or not to be like that is altogether impossible. What do you make of it?”

大師いはく、恁麼也不得、不恁麼也不得、恁麼不恁麼總不得、汝作麼生。

 

These are the words spoken by the Great Master for Yakusan.

これすなはち大師藥山のためにするなり

 

Truly, because to be like that or not to be like that is altogether impossible, to be like that is impossible and not to be like that is impossible.

まことにそれ恁麼不恁麼不得なるゆゑに、恁麼不得なり、不恁麼不得なり

 

“Like that” describes it.

恁麼恁麼をいふなり

 

It is not [a matter of] the limited usefulness of words and not [a matter of] the unlimited usefulness of words:

有限道用にあらず、無限道用にあらず

 

we should learn “it” in the state of impossibility, and we should inquire into “impossibility” in the state of it.

恁麼不得參學すべし、不得恁麼問取すべし

 

It is not that this concrete it, and the impossible, are relevant only to the consideration of buddhas.

這箇恁麼および不得、ひとへに佛量のみにかかはれるにあらざるなり

 

To understand it is impossible. To realize it is impossible.

會不得なり、悟不得なり

 

 

 Gyoji

 行持

 [Pure] Conduct and Observance [of Precepts] — Part One

 

Master [Goso Ho-]en once preached, “Conduct is not on a level beyond thinking, and thinking is not on a level beyond conduct.”

演和尚、あるときしめしていはく、行無越思、思無越行。

■□■□

 

Great Master Gohon of Tozan mountain said, “I explain what I am unable to practice and practice what I am unable to explain.” This is the saying of the founding Patriarch. The point is that practice illuminates a way through to explanation, and there are ways in which explanation leads through to practice. This being so, what we preach in a day is what we practice in a day. The point is, then, that we practice what is impossible to practice and preach what is impossible to preach.

 

Great Master Kokaku of Ungo-zan mountain, having totally penetrated this teaching, said, “In the time of explanation there is no trace of practice; in the time of practice there is no trace of explanation.” This expression of the truth is that practice-and-explanation is not nonexistent: the time of explanation is a lifetime without leaving the monastery, and the time of practice is washing the head and going before Seppo. We should neither disregard nor disarrange [the words that] “In the time of explanation there is no trace of practice, and in the time of practice there is no trace of explanation.”

 

洞山悟本大師道、說取行不得底、行取說不得底。これ高祖なりその宗旨、行ずるみちをあきらめ、說ずるみちありしかあれば、終日とくところに終日おこなふなりその宗旨、行不得底行取、說不得底說取するなり

雲居山弘覺大師、この七通八達するにいはく、說時無行路、行時無說路。
この道得、行說なきにあらずその說時、一生不離叢林なりその行時、洗頭到雪峰前なり。說時無行路、行時無說路、さしおくべからずみだらざるべし

 

■□■□

 

Time is swifter than an arrow, the dew-drop life more fragile than a body. There is the anguish of having a teacher but being unable to partake in [the teaching], and there is the sadness of being ready to partake in [the teaching] but being unable to find a teacher—I have personally experienced such matters.

光陰よりもすみやかなり、露命よりももろし。師はあれどもわれ參不得なるうらみあり、參ぜんとするに師不得なるかなしみありかくのごとくの事、まのあたりに見聞せしなり

 

 

 Gyoji

 行持

 [Pure] Conduct and Observance [of Precepts] — Part Two

 

 [Monks in] all directions praised Tendo with one voice, but Tendo did not praise [the monks of] all directions.

諸方もおなじく天童をほむ、天童諸方をほめず

 

 

 Juki

 授記

 Affirmation

 

The Buddha said, “There are many kinds of affirmation, but if I now briefly summarize them, there are eight kinds, as follows:

 

1) the subject knows, others do not know;

2) everybody else knows, the subject does not know;

3) both the subject and everybody else know;

4) neither the subject nor everybody else knows;

5) the near realize it, the far do not realize it;

6) the far realize it, the near do not realize it;

7) both [the near and the far] realize it;

8) neither [the near nor the far] realize it.”

 

Another sutra says, “[There are] those [affirmations] that the near know, those that the far know, those that both far and near know, and those that neither near nor far know.”

 

佛言、それ授記多般あれどもしばらく要略するに八種ありいはゆる
瓔珞第九、八種授記あり

自己知、他不知。
二者 衆人盡知、自己不知。
自己衆人、倶知。
自己衆人、倶不知。
五者 近覺、遠不覺。
六者、遠覺、近不覺。
七者、倶覺。
八者、倶不覺。

餘經又云、
近知者。從現佛得記也、如彌勒等。

■□■□

 

The realization of buddha expressed here inevitably follows one [moment] after another. Through tiny intervals that follow one after another, we realize buddha.

いはくの成佛かならず相繼するなり。相繼する少許成佛するなり

 

■□■□

 

Furthermore, because the body everywhere pervades the mind and the mind everywhere pervades the body, the [Sutra] says, “body-and-mind everywhere.”

さらに又、身はかならず、心はかならずずるゆゑに身心遍といふ

 

 

 Kannon

 觀音

 Kannon, the Bodhisattva of Compassion

 

When Ungan says “The whole body is hands and eyes” he is not saying that hands and eyes are a body which is everywhere. Being everywhere is the whole world, but the very moment of the body-hands and body-eyes cannot be pervaded by “being everywhere.”

雲巖道遍身是手眼といふは、手眼是身遍といふにあらず。遍はたとひ遍界なりとも、身手眼正當恁麼、遍所遍なるべからず

 

 

 Arakan

 阿羅漢

 The Arhat

 

The principle here is having just said that a foreigner’s beard is red, there also being the fact that a red-beard is a foreigner.

將謂胡鬚赤、更有赤鬚胡道理なり

 

■□■□

 

We must learn in practice the principle of calling arhat the state of buddha, and we must also learn in practice the principle of calling the state of buddha arhat.

阿羅漢じて佛地とする道理をも參學すべし。佛地じて阿羅漢とする道理をも參學すべきなり

 

 

 Komyo

 光明

 Brightness

 

The aforementioned “brightness of the Buddhist patriarchs” is the whole Universe in ten directions; it is the whole of buddhas and the whole of patriarchs; it is buddhas alone, together with buddhas; it is the Buddha’s state of brightness and the bright state of Buddha.

いはゆる佛祖光明盡十方界なり、盡佛盡祖なり、唯佛與佛なり。佛光なり、光佛なり

 

■□■□

 

This light is the Buddha’s light. Illumination of the East is the East’s luminance.

此光佛光なり、照東方東方照なり

 

■□■□

 

We must painstakingly learn in practice the words spoken by Chosa that “The whole Universe in ten directions is the brightness of the self.” We must learn the self which is brightness, as the whole Universe in ten directions.

長沙道盡十方界、是自己光明道取審細參學すべきなり。光明、自己、盡十方界參學すべきなり

 

■□■□

 

The whole Universe in the ten directions is the concrete self, and the concrete self is the whole Universe in ten directionsthere is no scope for evasion.

盡十方界是自己なり。是自己盡十方界なり。廻避餘地あるべからず

 

■□■□

 

The present seven feet of skull and bones is just the form and the image of the whole Universe in ten directions. The whole Universe in ten directions that we practice and experience in Buddhism is the skull and bones, the physical body, the skin, flesh, bones, and marrow.

而今髑髏七尺、すなはち盡十方界なり、象なり。佛道修證する盡十方界、髑髏形骸、皮肉骨髓なり

■□■□

 

So remember, the brightness that each individual human being totally possesses is the realized individual human being, and is the individual human being that each individual state of brightness totally possesses.

しかあればしるべし、人人盡有光明、現成人人なり。光光、盡有人人なりしばらく雲門にとふなんぢなにをよんでか人人とするなにをよんでか光明とする

 

 Shinjin Gakudo

 身心學道
 Learning the Truth with Body and Mind

 

In learning the truth like this—whether acclaim has naturally accrued to the effective or whether effectiveness has yet to accrue to the acclaimed—secretly to borrow the nostrils of a Buddhist patriarch and let them expel air, or to use the hooves of a horse or a donkey to stamp the seal of real experience, is just a signpost for ten thousand ages.

かくのごとく學道するに、有功おのづからきたり、有賞いまだいたらざれどもひそかに佛祖鼻孔をかりて出氣せしめ、驢馬脚蹄じて印證せしむるすなはち萬古榜樣なり

■□■□

 

The earth is not always soil, and soil is not always the earth.

はかならずしもにあらず、土かならずしもにあらず

 

■□■□

 

It neither arises from circumstances nor arises from wisdom; it is the bodhi-mind arising and is establishment of the bodhi-mind.

境發にあらず、智發にあらず、菩提心發なり、發菩提心なり

 

■□■□

 

 “The mind of eternal buddhas:” long ago a monk asked the National Master Daisho, “What is the mind of eternal buddhas?” Then the National Master said, “Fences, walls, tiles, and pebbles.” So remember, the mind of eternal buddhas is beyond fences, walls, tiles, and pebbles; and fences, walls, tiles, and pebbles are not to be called “the mind of eternal buddhas.” This is how we learn the mind of eternal buddhas.

古佛心といふはむかしありて大證國師にとふいかにあらむかこれ古佛心。
ときに國師いはく、牆壁瓦礫。しかあればしるべし、古佛心牆壁瓦礫にあらず、牆壁瓦礫古佛心といふにあらず、古佛心それかくのごとくするなり

 

■□■□

 

 “The body learning the truth” means learning the truth with the body, learning the truth with a mass of red flesh. The body derives from learning the truth, and what de­rives from learning the truth is, in every case, the body.

身學道といふは、身にて學道するなり。赤肉團學道なり。身學道よりきたり、學道よりきたれるはともになり

 

■□■□

 

Because the eighty-four thousand aggregates of Dharma-preaching are the turning of the wheel of Dharma, a place where the wheel of Dharma turns is all the world and is all of Time.

八萬四千說法蘊、これ轉法輪なるがゆゑに、法輪轉處、亙界なり、亙時なり

 

■□■□

 

The reason [we need not fear life-and-death] is that even before we are through with life, we are already meeting death in the present. And even before we are through with death, we are already meeting life in the present.

ゆゑいかんとなればいまだをすてざれどもいますでにをみるいまだをすてざれどもいますでにをみる

 

■□■□

 

We should quietly consider and examine these words. Although Zen Master Engo has spoken like this, he still does not know that life-and-death is beyond all functions. When we learn going-and-coming in practice, there is life-and-death in going, there is life-­and-death in coming, there is going-and-coming in life, and there is going-and-coming in death. Going-and-coming, with the whole Universe in the ten directions as two wings or three wings, goes flying away and comes flying back, and with the whole Universe in the ten directions as three feet or five feet, steps forward and steps backward. With life-and-death as its head and tail, the real human body which is the whole Universe in ten directions can turn somersaults and turn around its brain. In turning somersaults and turning around its brain, it is as if the size of a penny, or like the inside of an atom. The flat, level, and even state is walls standing a thousand feet high. And the place where walls stand a thousand feet high is the flat, level, and even state. Thus the real features of the southern continent and the northern continent exist; examining their [real features], we learn the truth. The bones and marrow of non-thought and non­-non-thought exist; resisting this [idea], we solely learn the truth.

この道著、しづかに功夫點撿すべし。圜悟禪師かつて恁麼いふといへどもなほいまだ生死全機にあまれることをしらず。去來參學するに、去生死あり、來生死あり、生去來あり、死去來あり。去來盡十方界兩翼三翼として飛去飛來、盡十方界三足五足として進歩退歩するなり。生死頭尾として、盡十方界眞實人體はよく翻身囘腦するなり。翻身囘腦するに、如一錢大なり、似微塵裏なり、平坦坦地、それ壁立千仭なり、壁立千仭處、それ平坦坦地なりこのゆゑに南州北州面目ありこれをして學道。非想非非想骨髓ありこれをして學道するのみなり

■□■□

 

When we learn going-and-coming in practice, there is life-and-death in going, there is life-­and-death in coming, there is going-and-coming in life, and there is going-and-coming in death.

去來參學するに、去生死あり、來生死あり、生去來あり、死去來あり

 

■□■□

 

The flat, level, and even state is walls standing a thousand feet high. And the place where walls stand a thousand feet high is the flat, level, and even state.

翻身囘腦するに、如一錢大なり、似微塵裏なり、平坦坦地、それ壁立千仭なり、壁立千仭處、それ平坦坦地なり

 

 

 Muchu-Setsumu

 夢中

 Preaching a Dream in a Dream

 

Preach­ing the dream-state in the dream-state is eternal buddhas, who, “riding in this precious carriage, arrive directly at the place of truth.” Direct arrival at a place of the truth is in the riding of this precious carriage.

夢中說夢は古佛なり。乘此寶乘、直至道場なり。直至道場は乘此寶乘中なり。

 

■□■□

 

There is centering on dreams, there is dream-preaching, there is preaching of the dream-state, and there is being in the dream-state. Without being in the dream-state there is no preaching of the dream-state, and without preaching of the dream-state there is no being in the dream-state. Without preaching of the dream-state there are no buddhas, and without being in the dream-state, buddhas can never appear in the world to turn the wondrous wheel of Dharma.

 

This wheel of Dharma is of buddhas alone, together with buddhas, and it is preaching of the dream-state in the dream-state. It is solely in preaching the dream-state in the dream-state that the supreme-bodhi-multitude of buddhas and patriarchs exists.

 

中夢あり、夢說あり、說夢あり、夢中あるなり。夢中にあらざれば說夢なし、說夢にあらざれば夢中なし、說夢にあらざれば諸佛なし、夢中にあらざれば諸佛出世し轉妙法輪することなし。

 

その法輪は、唯佛與佛なり、夢中說夢なり。ただまさに夢中說夢に無上菩提衆の諸佛諸祖あるのみなり。

 

■□■□

 

 [Preaching of a dream in a dream] is just one strike of the clapper making a thousand hits or ten thousand hits, and is a thousand strikes or ten thousand strikes of the clapper making one hit or half a hit.

ただまさに一槌千當萬當なり、千槌萬槌は一當半當なり。

 

 

 Dotoku

 道得

 Expressing the Truth

 

So the present expression of the truth is furnished with the insights of former times, and the insights of former times were furnished with the present expression of the truth.

ゆゑにいまの道得、かのときの見得をそなへたるなり

かのときの見得、いまの道得をそなへたり

 

■□■□

 

It is sitting away hundred thousands of buddhas, and it is hundred thousands of buddhas sitting away you.

坐斷百千諸佛なり、百千諸佛坐斷儞なり

 

 Gabyo

 畫餅

 A Picture of Rice Cake

 

Because a picture of buddha has [always] been drawn like this, all the buddhas are picture-buddhas, and all picture-buddhas are buddhas.

かくのごとくして、壹軸の畫佛を圖しきたれるゆゑに、一切諸佛はみな畫佛なり。一切畫佛はみな諸佛なり。

 

■□■□

 

They are the workings of yin and yang and at the same time they make yin and yang work, wherein they experience years and months as the long  bamboos.

陰陽の運なりといへども、陰陽をして運ならしむるに、修竹の年月あり。

 

■□■□

 

When we learn this principle in experience, we begin to master, throughout the body-and-mind, the virtue of changing things and being changed by things.

この宗旨を參學するとき、いささか轉物物轉の功德を身心に究盡するなり。

 

 

 Zenki

 全機

 All Functions

 

Realization is life, and life is realization.

現成これなり、生これ現成なり

 

■□■□

 

Life in the present exists in this pivot-state, and this pivot-state exists in life in the present.

いまのはこの機關にありこの機關はいまのにあり

■□■□

 

So life is what I am making it, and I am what life is making me.

このゆゑに、生はわがぜしむるなりわれをばのわれならしむるなり

 

■□■□

 

What has been described like this is that life is the self, and the self is life.

なるわれわれなる生、それかくのごとし

 

■□■□

 

Thus, life does not get in the way of death and death does not get in the way of life.

このゆゑに、生罣礙せず、死罣礙せざるなり

 

■□■□

 

It is not a matter of unity, but neither is it a matter of variance; it is not variance, but neither is it identity; it is not identity, but neither is it multiplicity.

にあらざれどもにあらず、異にあらざれどもにあらず、即にあらざれどもにあらず

 

■□■□

 

Therefore, in life there are miscellaneous real dharmas which are the manifestation of all functions, and in death there are miscellaneous real dharmas which are the manifestation of all functions. And in the state beyond “life” and beyond “death,” there is the manifestation of all functions. In the manifestation of all functions there is life and there is death.

このゆゑに、生にも全機現衆法あり、死にも全機現衆法あり。生にあらずにあらざるにも全機現あり。全機現あり、死あり

 

■□■□

 

And here is Dogen’s penultimate sentence, followed by eight translations:

 

さきの全機現ありといへども

いまの全機現罣礙せざるなり

 

Although there has been previous manifestation of all functions, it does not get in the way of the present manifestation of all functions.

Gudo Nishijima

 

Although there is previous manifestation of the whole works, it is does not block the present manifestation of the whole works.

Thomas Cleary

 

Although there was a previous presentation of complete activity, this does not obstruct the display of complete activity as the present.

Anzan Hoshin

 

But undivided activity manifested previously does not hinder the present realization of undivided activity.

Kazuaki Tanahashi

 

Even though such a person may say that he had some previous manifestation of his True Nature, it has not inhibited the present appearance of his True Nature.

Hubert Nearman

 

Bien qu'il y ait "une manifestation de la totale activité" d'avant, celle-ci n'empêche pas "la manifestation de la totale activité" de maintenant.

Éric Rommeluère

 

Aber auch wenn von der Vergegenwärtigung des vorigen allumfassenden Wirkens gesprochen wird, so steht das doch der Vergegenwärtigung des jetzigen allumfassenden Wirkens nicht im Weg.

German Translation

 

Había el manifestarse del integro funcionamiento de antes, pero no obstaculiza el manifestarse del integro funcionamiento de ahora.

Roberto Poveda Anadón

 

 

Book Three

 

 

 Tsuki

 都機

 The Moon

 

The reality as it is in this “is like the moon in water” may be the [oneness of] water-and-moon, or it may be the water’s reality, or the moon’s reality, or being in reality, or the reality of being in.

いはゆる如水中月の如如は水月なるべし。水如、月如、如中、中如なるべし。

 

■□■□

 

Because we see the moon as the mind, it is not the mind unless it is the moon, and there is no moon which is not the mind.

とせるがゆゑに。月にあらざればにあらず、心にあらざるなし

 

■□■□

 

The mind is the moon itself, and this moon is naturally the mind.

このすなはちなりこのおのづからなり

 

■□■□

 

An eternal Buddha says, “One mind is the whole Dharma, and the whole Dharma is one mind.” So the mind is the whole Dharma, and the whole Dharma is the mind.

 

古佛いはく、一心一切法、一切法一心。しかあれば、心一切法なり、一切法なり

 

■□■□

 

A step of the moon is the round realization of the Tathagata, and the round realization of the Tathagata is the action of the moon.

一歩如來圓覺なり、如來圓覺運爲なり

 

 

 Kuge

 空華

 Flowers in Space

 

The composition of a flower is five petals, and the opening of five petals is a flower.

一華五葉なり、五葉一華なり

 

■□■□

 

The world has causes, and the world has effects. We enact the cause-and-effect that is this world, and we accept the cause-and-effect that is the world.

公界あり、公界ありこの公界因果、公界因果ずるなり

 

■□■□

 

Every flower and fruit has maintained and relied upon a moment of time, and every moment of time has maintained and relied upon flowers and fruit.

華果ともに時節保任せり、時節ともに花果保任せり

 

■□■□

 

Spring brings in flowers, and flowers bring in spring.

をひく、華をひくものなり

■□■□

 

This “brightness” has clearly realized the monks’ hall, the Buddha hall, the kitchen hall, and the temple gate. The “whole sands-of-the-Ganges world” is realized by brightness, and is brightness realized.

この光明、あらたに僧堂佛殿廚庫山門現成せり。遍河沙光明現成なり、現成光明なり

■□■□

 

 “Worldly circumstance” and “worldly circumstance follow” each other, and “following” and “following” is “worldly circumstances.” This state is called “without hindrances.” We should learn the state beyond hindrance and no hindrance as that which is obstructed by the eyes.

世緣世緣隨順、隨順隨順世緣なりこれを無罣礙といふ。罣礙不罣礙、被眼礙慣習すべきなり

■□■□

 

With cloudedness they make eyes real. Flowers in space are realized in eyes, and eyes are realized in flowers in space. It may be that “When flowers in space are there in the eyes, a single instance of cloudedness tumbles down,” and “When an eye is there in space, all instances of cloudedness tumble down.”

をもて現成せしむ、眼中空花現成、空花中現成せり。空花在眼、一翳亂墜。一眼在空、衆翳亂墜なるべし

 

■□■□

 

For this reason, Great Master Kosho of Royasan says:

 How wondrous are the buddhas in the ten directions!

 They are originally just the flowers in our eyes.

 And if we want to know the flowers in our eyes,

 They are originally just the buddhas in the ten directions.

 If we want to know buddhas in ten directions,

 They are other than the flowers in our eyes.

 If we want to know flowers in eyes,

 They are other than the buddhas in the ten directions;

 

このゆゑに、瑯瑘山廣照大師いはく

 奇哉十方佛、

 元是眼中花。

 欲識眼中花、

 元是十方佛。

 欲識十方佛、

 不是眼中華。

 欲識眼中花、

 不是十方佛。

 

■□■□

 

Flowers in space exist on the basis of unfolding from the ground, and the whole ground exists on the basis of the opening of flowers.

從地發空華あり、從花開盡地あり

 

 Kobutsushin

 古佛心

 The Mind of Eternal Buddhas

 

Clearly, an eternal buddha is present in the house of Tendo, and Tendo is present in the house of an eternal buddha.

はかりしりぬ、天童屋裏古佛あり、古佛屋裏天童あることを

■□■□

 

Furthermore, there may be instances of the eternal mind practicing buddha, there may be instances of the eternal mind experi­encing buddha, there may be instances of the eternal mind making buddha, and there may be instances of the eternity of buddha making up a mind.

さらに又古心行佛なるあるべし、古心證佛なるあるべし、古心作佛なるあるべし。佛古爲心なるあるべし

 

■□■□

 

Are fences and walls caused to appear through a process of production, or is production caused to appear on the basis of fences and walls?

造作より牆壁出現せしむるか、牆壁より造作出現せしむるか

 

 

 Bodaisatta-Shishobo

 菩提薩埵四攝法

 Four Elements of a Bodhisattva’s Social Relations

 

Dharma can be a treasure, and material gifts can be dharma . . .

もたからなるべし、財なるべし

■□■□

 

But there are times when mind changes things, and there is free giving in which things change mind.

されども、心轉物のときあり、物轉心布施あるなり

■□■□

 

There may be a principle of, after letting others identify with us, then letting ourselves identify with others.

をしてぜしめてのちに、自をしてぜしむる道理あるべし

 

 

 Katto

 葛藤

 Entangling Vines

 

Remember, there are cases of “you have got me” and there are cases of “I have got you.” There are cases in which “getting me” is “you” and there are cases in which “getting you” is “me.”

しるべし、汝得吾あるべし、吾得汝あるべし、得吾汝あるべし、得汝吾あるべし。

 

■□■□

 

When we reflect exactly the moment in which Mahakasyapa gives the transmission to Ananda, Ananda is concealing his body in Mahakasyapa and Mahakasyapa is concealing his body in Ananda.

迦葉傳與阿難の時節を當觀するに、阿難藏身於迦葉なり、迦葉藏身於阿難なり。

 

 

 Sangai Yuishin

 三界唯心

 The Triple World Is Only the Mind

 

Seeing it as the triple world is the realized triple world, is the triple world’s realization, and is the realized universe.

見於三界、見成三界なり、三界見成なり、見成公案なり

 

■□■□

 

Because this triple world here and now is the Tathagata’s own possession, the whole Universe is the triple world. Because the triple world is the whole Universe, here and now is the past, present, and future.

いまこの三界、如來我有なるがゆゑに、盡界みな三界なり。三界盡界なるがゆゑに、今此過現當來なり

 

■□■□

 

That the state in the moment of the present is beyond the father being former and the child being latter, beyond the child being former and the father being latter, and beyond father and child being aligned together, is the truth of “my children.”

而今父前子後にあらず、子先父後にあらず。父子あひならべるにあらざるを吾子道理といふなり

 

■□■□

 

Sometimes a father is young and a child is old; sometimes a father is old and a child is young; sometimes a father is old and a child is old; and sometimes a father is young and a child is young. One who imitates the maturity of a father is not being a child, and one who does not pass through the immaturity of childhood will not be a father.

父少子老あり、父老子少あり。父老子老あり、父少子少ありちちのするはにあらず、子をへざらんはちちにあらざらん

 

■□■□

 

Though not restricting the compassionate father, we are realized as “my children,” and without restricting “my children,” the compassionate father is realized.

慈父罣礙せざれども吾子現成せり、吾子罣礙せずして慈父現成せり

 

■□■□

 

All such children—“my children and “childlike me’s”—are true heirs of the compassionate father Shakyamuni.

かくのごとく、吾子、子吾、ことごとく釋迦慈父令嗣なり

 

 

 Sesshin-Sessho

 說心說性

 Expounding the Mind and Expounding the Nature

 

As a result, because he understands that the mind is only thinking, sensing, mindfulness, and realization but does not understand that thinking, sensing, mindfulness, and realization are the mind, he speaks like this.

これによりて、心はひとへに慮知念覺なりとしりて、慮知念覺なることをせざるによりてかくのごとくいふ

 

■□■□

 

Even before experience of the state, expounding the mind and expounding the nature is the Buddha-way; at the same time, it is by expounding the mind and expounding the nature that we experience the state.

證契よりさきの說心說性、佛道なりといへども、說心說性して證契するなり

 

■□■□

 

The principle under discussion now is that [the unity of] in and side, and [the unity of] the existence of a human and a human’s existence, is expounding the mind and expressing the nature

いはゆるいまの道理、或裏或面、有人人有、說心說性なり。面裏心說、面裏性說なり

 

■□■□

 

We learn the expounding of the-mind-in-which-there-is-no-person, we learn the-state-in-which-there-is-no-person expounding the mind, we learn expounding the mind as the concrete human state, and we learn a concrete human being expounding the mind.

說心無人、無人說心、說心是人、是人說心するなり

■□■□

 

The total effort that Rinzai expresses is only “a true human being without rank,” but he has never mentioned a true human being who has a rank.

臨濟道取する盡力はわづかに無位眞人なりといへども、有位眞人いまだ道取せず

 

■□■□

 

Brother Somitsu says, “That state of expounding the mind and expounding the nature is who.” Comparing the previous “Who is it?” and the present “it is who,” while the name is still the third son of Chang, the man is the fourth son of Lee.

僧密師伯いはく、說心說性底誰。さきの是誰といまの是誰その張三なりともその李四なり

 

 Butsudo

 佛道

 The Buddhist Truth

 

From Shakyamuni Buddha to Sokei there are thirty-four patriarchs.

Each of the transmissions between these Buddhist patriarchs is like Kasyapa meeting the Tathagata and like the Tathagata getting Kasyapa.

釋迦牟尼佛より曹谿にいたるまで三十四祖あり

この佛祖相承、ともに迦葉如來にあひたてまつれりしがごとく、如來迦葉をえましますがごとし

 

■□■□

 

Why should the World-Honored One necessarily call the mind a sect? And why should a sect inevitably be related to the mind?

世尊なにのゆゑにかあながちにぜん。宗なにによりてかかならずしもならん

 

 

 Shoho-Jisso

 諸法實相

 All Dharmas Are Real Form

 

The realization of the Buddhist patriarchs is perfectly realized real form. Real form is all dharmas. All dharmas are forms as they are, . . .

佛祖現成究盡實相なり。實相諸法なり。諸法如是相なり. . .

 

■□■□

 

Because learning in practice is in the state of total equilibrium, buddhas alone, together with buddhas, are the real form of all dharmas; and the real form of all dharmas is buddhas alone, together with buddhas.

參學一等なるがゆゑに、唯佛與佛諸法實相なり。諸法實相唯佛與佛なり

 

■□■□

 

The state they indicate is, for example, like a pearl spinning around a bowl and like the bowl spinning around the pearl.

その宗旨、たとへばをはしるがごとく、盤をはしるがごとし

■□■□

 

If we take hold of the person and force it to leave or to enter the gate, the gate becomes more and more distant. If we take hold of the gate and get it to enter the person, there are chances for departure and entry.

して出入せしむればいよいよととほざかる。門してにいるるには、出入あり

■□■□

 

In sum, the supreme truth of bodhi of the forty buddhas and forty pa­triarchs totally belongs to this Sutra. It belongs to this Sutra and this Sutra belongs to it.

しかあればすなはち、四十佛四十祖無上菩提、みな此經せり。屬此經なり、此經屬なり

 

“Mind” cannot come into the reality of the twelve hours, and “twelve hours” do not enter the reality of the mind of the [concrete] twelve.

十二時中には、心きたりいるべからず。十二心中十二時きたらずいはんや起心あらんや

 

■□■□

 

Do images exist in the reality of the twelve hours? Do the twelve hours exist inside the image of reality?

十二時中にあるか、念裏十二時あるか

 

■□■□

 

Remember, real form is the right lifeblood that has been transmitted and received from rightful successor to rightful successor; all dharmas are the perfectly realized state of buddhas alone, together with buddhas; and the state of buddhas alone, together with buddhas, is the loveliness of form as it is.

しるべし、實相嫡嫡相承正脈なり。諸法究盡參究唯佛與佛なり、唯佛與佛如是相好なり

 

 Mitsugo

 密語

 Secret Talk

 

It is, in every case, the World-honored One’s existence, and the existent World-honored One.

これかならず世尊有なり、有世尊なり

 

 

 Bukkyo

 佛經

 The Buddhist Sutras

 

The tools accord with the master, and the master uses the tools.

調度ぬしにしたがふぬし調度をつかふ

 

■□■□

 

There are skin-bags and fists who get eyes then get the sutras, and there are wooden dippers and lacquered tubs who get the sutras then get eyes.

あるいはまなこをえて經卷をうる皮袋拳頭ありあるいは經卷をえてまなこをうる木杓漆桶あり

 

■□■□

 

The time of deci­sively getting this Sutra is beyond past and present; because past and present are moments of getting the Sutra, what is manifested before our eyes as the whole Universe in ten directions is just the getting of this Sutra.

必得是經のときは、古今にあらず、古今得經時節なるがゆゑに。盡十方界目前現前せるはこれ得是經なり

 

■□■□

 

Because it is the reciter and the recited, reciting sutras and sutras recited, it may be total knowing and total seeing.

能轉所轉、轉經經轉なるがゆゑに、悉知悉見なるべきなり

 

■□■□

 

Because the right-Dharma-eye treasury which is being realized in the present is itself the Buddhist sutras, all things that exist as Buddhist sutras are the right-Dharma-eye treasury.

いま現成せる正法眼藏はすなはち佛經なるがゆゑにあらゆる佛經正法眼藏なり

 

■□■□

 

He seems only to understand the many, forgetting the one, or to realize the one, forgetting the many.

ただしてをわすれ、一してにわづらふがごとし

 

■□■□

 

A past Master says, “You delude yourself with the sutras, the sutras do not delude you.”

古德いはくなんぢにまどふ、經なんぢをまよはさず

 

 Mujo-Seppo

 無情說法

 The Non-Emotional Preaches the Dharma

 

This preaching the dharma is the Dharma preaching.

この說法法說なり

 

■□■□

 

Do not learn only that preaching the Dharma has been orchestrated by Buddhist patriarchs; Buddhist patriarchs have been orchestrated by preaching the Dharma.

佛祖しきたるとのみ參學することなかれ。佛祖說法せられきたるなり

 

■□■□

 

When we hear the words of the ancestral Patriarch Ungan and listen to the words of the National Master Daisho, if we truly evaluate them, the saints expressed in “The saints are able listen” may be the non-emotional, and the non-emotional expressed in “The non-emotional are able to hear” may be the saints.

雲巖曩祖聞取、大證國師聽取してまさに與奪せば、諸聖得聞道取する諸聖無情なるべし。無情得聞道取する無情諸聖なるべし

 

■□■□

 

Thus, the non-emotional is the preaching of Dharma and the preaching of Dharma is the non-emotional.

しかあればすなはち、無情說法なり、說法無情なり

 

■□■□

 

In this very moment, virtue is present which covers the body, which covers the moment before the body, which covers the mind, which covers the moment before the mind, which covers the moment after the mind, which covers causes, conditions, results, actions, forms, natures, substance, and energy, which covers buddhas, which covers patriarchs, which covers self-and-others, and which covers skin, flesh, bones, marrow, and so on.

この正當恁麼時、蓋身蓋身先、蓋心蓋心先、蓋心後、蓋因緣報業相性體力、蓋佛蓋祖、蓋自他、蓋皮肉骨髓等功德あり

 

■□■□

 

Relying upon the truth that all Dharma-preaching is in the non-emotional state, the non-emotional preach the Dharma, which is the ancient standard, and the non-emotional preaches Dharma to the non emotional.

一切說法無情なる道理によりて無情說法なりいはゆる典故なり。無情爲無情說法なり. . .

 

Note:

說法無情 (SEPPO-MUJO). The reversal of 無情 (MUJO) and 說法 (SEPPO) makes the non-emotional the object preached as the Dharma instead of the subject that preaches the Dharma.

 

■□■□

 

Such [preaching] as the non-emotional preaching the Dharma, and Dharma-preaching of the non-emotional is, in short, not to speak abusive language.

無情說法ならびに說法無情等、おほよそ莫惡口なり

 

 

 Hossho

 法性

 Dharma Nature

 

A good counselor is the Dharma-nature and is the self. The Dharma-nature is a good counselor and the Dharma-nature is the self.

知識これ法性なり、自己なり。法性これ知識なり、法性これ自己なり

 

■□■□

 

The Dharma-nature expressed by Baso is the Dharma-nature expressed by the Dharma-nature. It experiences the same state as Baso, and he is in the same state as the Dharma-nature.

馬祖道法性、法性道法性なり。馬祖同參、法性同參なり

 

■□■□

 

People eat meals, and meals eat people.

人喫飯、飯喫人なり

 

■□■□

 

That being so, this place here and now is the Dharma-nature, and the Dharma-nature is this place here and now.

即今遮裏法性なり。法性即今遮裡なり

 

 

 Darani

 陀羅尼

 Dharani (Invocations)

 

Remember, prostration is the right-Dharma-eye-treasury, and the right-Dharma-eye-treasury is the great dharani.

しるべし、禮拜正法眼藏なり。正法眼藏大陀羅尼なり

 

 

 Menju

 面授

 The Face-to-Face Transmission

 

In this way the true ancestral masters of successive generations have each passed on the face-to-face transmission through the disciple regarding the master and the master seeing the disciple.

かくのごとく代代嫡嫡祖師、ともに弟子にみえ、師弟子をみるによりて面授しきたれり

 

■□■□

 

It is the Buddha’s eyes and the Buddha’s countenance which have done prostrations to the Buddha-face of Shakyamuni Buddha, which have moved the Buddha-eyes of Shakyamuni Buddha into our own eyes, and which have moved our own eyes into the Buddha’s eyes.

釋迦牟尼佛佛面禮拜したてまつり、釋迦牟尼佛佛眼をわがまなこにうつしたてまつりわがまなこを佛眼にうつしたてまつりし佛眼睛なり、佛面目なり

 

■□■□

 

One who never in a lifetime meets a master is not a disciple, and one who never meets a disciple is not a master.

一世をみざれば弟子にあらず、弟子をみざればにあらず

 

■□■□

 

In conclusion, the great truth of the Buddhist patriarchs is nothing other than a face giving and a face receiving, and the reception of a face and the giving of a face, beyond which there is nothing sur­plus and nothing lacking.

おほよそ佛祖大道、唯面授面受、受面授面のみなりさらに剩法あらず、虧闕あらず

 

 

 Baike

 

 Plum Blossoms

 

Its instant mystical changes and mystical wonder are unfathomable: even the great earth and the high heavens, the bright sun and the pure moon, have established their merits relying upon the tree-merits of the old plum tree, [whose state] is entanglement knotting and entwining with entanglement.

驀箚なる神變神怪きはむべからず。乃至大地高天、明日清月、これ老梅樹樹功より樹功せり。葛藤葛藤結纏するなり

 

■□■□

 

Though there are differences in the views of human beings and gods, and though the sentiments of the common and the sacred diverge, “the boundless expanse of snow” is “the earth,” and “the earth” is “the boundless expanse of snow.”

人天見別ありとも、凡聖情隔すとも、雪漫漫大地なり、大地雪漫漫なり

 

■□■□

 

They are all five petals opening on a single twig, and are a single twig of five petals.

みな只一枝開五葉なり、五葉一枝なり

 

■□■□

 

. . . [at which time] each face fills the picking up of a flower, and every flower fills the smiling face.

面面滿拈花、花花滿破顔なり

 

■□■□

 

 “The past-and-present being naturally there” is the plum blossom; the plum blossom is called “the past-and-present.”

自古今梅花なり。梅花古今ずるなり

 

 Juppo

 十方

 The Ten Directions

 

We should clearly learn in practice the truth that because everyday speech is the whole Universe in the ten directions, the whole Universe in the ten directions is everyday speech.

家常語盡十方界なるがゆゑに、盡十方界家常語なる道理、あきらかに參學すべし

 

 

 Kenbutsu

 見佛

 Meeting Buddha

 

the many forms are already beyond non-form, and non-form is just the many forms.

いはゆる諸相すでに非相にあらず、非相すなはち諸相なり

 

■□■□

 

Clearly, if one is meeting Buddha one is keeping the Sutra, and one who is keeping the Sutra is one who is meeting buddha.

はかりしりぬ、見佛すれば持經。持經のもの、見佛のものなり

 

 

 Hensan

 偏參

 Thorough Exploration

 

In sum, land is beyond east and west, and east and west are not connected with land.

おほよそ東西にあらず、東西にかかはれず

 

■□■□

 

Thus, we can conclude that the whole human being is mind, and the whole of mind is a human being.

このゆゑに、全人なり、全心なりとしりぬべし

 

 

 Ganzei

 眼睛

 Eyes

 

What is expressed here is that the buddhas in the ten directions are the Eye, and flowers in the Eye are the buddhas in the ten directions.

いはゆる十方佛は眼睛なり。眼中花は十方佛なり。

 

■□■□

 

Pursuing the object we should pursue eliminates realization as an object of pursuit, and there is also nothing to pursue in non-realization.

覓處覓、現成をも無處覓、未現成にも無處覓なり

 

 Kajo

 家常

 Everyday Life

 

So we should clearly maintain and rely upon [the teaching that] a Buddhist patriarch’s ideas and words are a Buddhist patriarch’s everyday tea and meals. Coarse tea and plain food in everyday life are the ideas and words of a Buddhist patriarch. Buddhist patriarchs make tea and meals, and tea and meals maintain Buddhist patriarchs. That being so, we rely on no tea and meal energy outside of these [tea and meals], and we never waste the Buddhist patriarch energy in these [tea and meals].

しかあればあきらかに保任すべし、佛祖意句、佛祖家常茶飯なり。家常麁茶淡飯、佛意祖句なり。佛祖茶飯をつくる。茶飯、佛祖保任せしむしかあれどもこのほかの茶飯力をからずこのうちの佛祖力をつひやさざるのみなり

 

■□■□

 

The patra is used for eating meals and what is used for eating meals is the patra.

鉢盂喫飯用なり、喫飯用鉢盂なり

 

■□■□

 

After satisfaction, there is recognition of meals. After completely eating a meal, there is satisfaction. After recognition, there is satisfaction with meals. And after satisfaction there is still eating meals.

飽了知飯あり、喫飯了飽あり。知了飽飯あり、飽了更喫飯あり

 

■□■□

 

This instant, we should already have seen through the heavy burden. “The golden and fine form” describes getting dressed and eating meals. Getting dressed and eating meals are the golden and fine form.

たちまちに透擔來すべし、黄金妙相といふは、著衣喫飯なり、著衣喫飯黄金妙相なり

 

 

 Shunju

 春秋

 Spring and Autumn

 

A bowl rolls around a pearl, and the pearl rolls around the bowl.

The absolute in the relative, the relative in the absolute.

Of the antelope, carrying its horns, there is no trace.

Hunting hounds circle the forest and emptily skulk.

盤走珠、珠走盤。

偏中正、正中偏。

羚羊掛角無蹤跡、

獵狗遶林空踧蹈。

 

Note:

偏中正 (HEN-CHU-SHO) and正中偏 (SHO-CHU-HEN) are the first two of Master Tozan’s five positions. The other three are正中來 (SHO-CHU-RAI), “the absolute coming to the middle,” 偏中至 (HEN-CHU-SHI), “the relative arriving at the middle,” and兼中到 (KEN-CHU-TO), “both having arrived at the middle.”

 

■□■□

 

Amid the relative exists the absolute; amid the absolute, the relative.

Thousands of centuries floating downstream in the human world.

How many times I have hoped to return, but to return has been impossible.

Before my gate, as ever, weeds are growing in abundance.

偏中有正正中偏、
流落人間千百年。
幾度欲歸歸未得、
門前依舊草芊芊。

 

 Soshi-Sairai-No-I

 祖師西来意

 The Ancestral Master’s Intention in Coming from the West

 

Thus, the whole mouth is the branch, the whole branch is the mouth, the thoroughly realized body is the mouth, and the thoroughly realized mouth is the body.

このゆゑに全口是枝なり、全枝是口なり

 

■□■□

 

Unless the mouth is biting the branch, there can be no asking, no voice that fills the mouth, and no mouth full of speech.

口銜枝にあらざれば、問著することあたはず。滿口音聲なし、滿言あらず

 

 

 Udonge

 優曇華

 The Udumbara Blossom 

 

Indeed, forget the World-Honored One’s twirling of a flower! When, just now, a flower-twirling world-honored one appears, that is the succession of the World-Honored One.

世尊拈華來、なほ放下著いまだし。拈華世尊來、ときに嗣世尊なり

 

■□■□

 

My possessing it is the transmission, and the transmission is my possessing it.

我有附囑なり、附囑我有なり

 

 

 Hotsu-Mujoshin

 發無上心

 Establishment of the Will to the Supreme

 

Thus, one undivided mind is all dharmas, and all dharmas are one undivided mind, which is the whole body.

しかあれば、一心諸法なり、諸法一心なり、全身なり

 

■□■□

 

Despite this, to hear only that bringing forth the mind is one bringing forth without further instances of bringing forth the mind, or that the practices are innumerable while the fruit of verification is one verification—this is not hearing the buddha dharma, is not knowing the buddha dharma, is not encountering the buddha dharma. 

 

The bringing forth the mind of a thousand million instances of bringing forth is definitely bringing forth one instance of bringing forth the mind. A thousand million people’s bringing forth the mind is bringing forth one bringing forth the mind; one bringing forth the mind is a thousand million instances of bringing forth the mind.  Practice and verification, turning the dharma are also like this.  Were they not grass, trees, and the rest, how could there be body and mind?  Were they not body and mind, how could there be grass and trees?  This is so because, were they not grass and trees, they would not be grass and trees. [English translation by Carl Bielefeldt]

 

しかあるに、發心一發にしてさらに發心せず、修行無量なり、證果一證なりとのみきくは、佛法をきくにあらず、佛法をしれるにあらず、佛法にあふにあらず

 

千億發發心さだめて一發心なり、千億人發心、一發心なり、一發心、千億發心なり。修證轉法もまたかくのごとし。草木等にあらずばいかでか身心あらん、身心にあらずばいかでか草木あらん、草木にあらずば、草木にあらざるがゆゑにかくのごとし

 

■□■□

 

To go deep into the mountains to consider the Buddha’s truth may be easy, [but] to build stupas and to build Buddhas is very difficult. Although each is accomplished through diligence and tirelessness, actively grasping the mind and being grasped by the mind may be much different.

入於深山、思惟佛道、容易なるべし、造塔造佛、甚難なりともに精進無怠より成熟すといへども、心拈來すると、心拈來せらるるとはるかにことなるべし

 

 

 Hotsu-Bodaishin

 發菩提心

 Establishment of the Bodhi-mind

 

This mind is not innate and it does not now suddenly arise; it is neither one nor many; it is not natural and it is not formed; it does not abide in our body, and our body does not abide in the mind.

この心もとよりあるにあらず、いまあらたに歘起するにあらず。一にあらず、多にあらず。自然にあらず、凝然にあらず。わが身のなかにあるにあらず、わが身は心のなかにあるにあらず。

 

 

 Nyorai-Zenshin

 如來全身

 The Whole Body of the Tathagata

 

Even if we know that volumes of the Sutra are the bones, if we do not know that bones are volumes of the Sutra, that is not yet the Buddha’s truth.

たとひ經卷はこれ舍利なりとしるといふとも、舍利はこれ經卷なりとしらずはいまだ佛道にあらず

 

 

 Zanmai-O-Zanmai

 三昧王三昧

 The Samadhi That Is King of Samadhis

 

Very few people realize that the act of sitting is the Buddha-Dharma and that the Buddha-Dharma is the act of sitting.

打坐佛法なること、佛法打坐なることをあきらめたるまれなり

 

■□■□

 

This being so, there is sitting with the mind, which is not the same as sitting with the body. There is sitting with the body, which is not the same as sitting with the mind.

しかあればすなはち、心打坐あり、身打坐とおなじからず

打坐あり、心打坐とおなじからず

 

 

Book Four

 

 Sanjushichi-Bon-Bodai-Bunpo

 三十七品菩提分法

 Thirty-seven Elements of Bodhi

 

Reflection on the body is the body’s reflection: it is not that, by means of the body’s reflection, something else reflects. Reflection itself, in the very moment of it, is the superlative having arrived.

觀身身觀なり、身觀にて餘物觀にあらず。正當觀卓卓來なり

 

■□■□

 

It is like the method of washing a robe, for example: water is dirtied by the robe and the robe is permeated by the water.

たとへば、浣衣のごとし水は衣に染汚せられ、衣は水に浸却せらる。

 

■□■□

 

The reflection that feeling is suffering: Suffering is feeling.

觀受是苦といふは、苦これなり

 

 

■□■□

 

Thus, “It has been said that living beings suffer; at the same time, there are suffering living beings.”

このゆゑに、將謂衆生苦、更有苦衆生なり

 

■□■□

 

All living beings are without the Buddha-nature. All instances of Buddha-nature are without living beings.

一切衆生無佛性なり、一切佛性無衆生なり

 

■□■□

 

Mindfulness as a root is a withered tree as a mass of red flesh. We call a mass of red flesh “a withered tree,” and a withered tree is mindfulness as a root.

念根、枯木赤肉團なり。赤肉團枯木といふ。枯木念根なり

 

■□■□

 

There can be many people in one state of mindfulness and many states of mindfulness in one person.

一念多人あり、一人多念あり

 

■□■□

 

People do not always have mindfulness, and mindfulness is not necessarily connected with people.

にかならずしもあるにあらず、念かならずしもにかかれるにあらず

 

■□■□

 

Diligence as a power is explaining what cannot be practiced and practicing what cannot be explained.

精進力、說取行不得底なり、行取說不得底なり

 

■□■□

 

Mindfulness as a power is a great brute, pulling a person’s nostrils. Thus, it is nostrils pulling a person, it is to throw away a jewel and get back a jewel, and it is to

念力、拽人鼻孔太殺人なりこのゆゑに、鼻孔拽人なり

 

■□■□

 

Balance as a power is like a child getting its mother, or like a mother getting her child.

定力は、或者如子得其母なり、或者如母得其子なり、. . .

 

■□■□

 

Wisdom as a power is of deep and long years, and is like a ferry coming to a crossing. For this reason, it was described in ancient times as “like a crossing getting a ferry.”

慧力、年代深遠なり。如船遇度なりかるがゆゑにふるくはいはく、如度得船。

 

■□■□

 

In the Buddhist state of truth is there movement and stillness, or is there no movement and stillness? Do we contact movement and stillness, or are we contacted by movement and stillness? Painstakingly research it in practice.

佛道動靜ありや、動靜なしや、動靜すや、動靜せらるやと、審細參學すべし

 

 

 Tenborin

 轉法輪

 Turning the Dharma Wheel 

 

So this phrase has already been turned in the Dharma wheel of Buddhist patriarchs; it is the Buddhist Patriarch’s Dharma wheel turning.

So this phrase has already been turned . . .

ゆゑにこの句すでに佛祖の法輪に轉ぜられたり、佛祖法輪轉なり。

 

■□■□

 

By reason of being preached by Buddhist patriarchs and preaching Buddhist patriarchs, even if a sutra is forged, once Buddhist patriarchs have preached and quoted it, it is truly a sutra of buddhas and a sutra of patriarchs, and it is the intimately-experienced Dharma wheel of the Buddhist Patriarch.

佛祖に轉ぜられ、佛祖を轉ずるがゆゑに、たとひ僞經なりとも、佛祖もし轉擧しきたらば眞箇の佛經祖經なり、親曾の佛祖法輪なり。

 

 

 Jisho-Zanmai

 自證三昧

 Samadhi as Experience of the Self

 

We receive this state from others and we impart this state to others; at the same time, it is just the lively springing out of eyes themselves, which gets free of self and others . . .

よりこれをうけこれをにさづくといへどもただ眼睛活出なり、自他脫落

 

■□■□

 

It is listening and preaching in which self and self experience the same state. One ear is listening and one ear is preaching, one tongue is preaching and one tongue is listening; and so on for eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body, and mind; for the sense organs, their consciousness, and their objects.

、同參聞說なり。一耳はきき、一耳はとく。一舌はとき、一舌はきく。乃至眼耳鼻舌身意根識塵等もかくのごとし

 

Note:

In other words, the subjective self that receives stimuli through the senses, and the objective self that preaches or manifests itself in the external world, become one undivided whole.

 

 

 Dai-Shugyo

 大修行

 Great Practice

 

The Master claps his hands and laughs, and says, “You have just expressed that a foreigner’s beard is red, but it is also a fact that a red-beard is a foreigner.

師拍手笑云、將爲胡鬚赤、更有赤鬚胡

 

■□■□

 

The Hyakujo mountain of the past has not become the Hyakujo mountain of the present. The present Hyakujo mountain was not formerly the Hyakujo mountain of Kasyapa Buddha’s time.

過去百丈山にきたりて而今百丈山となれるにあらずいまの百丈山さきだちて迦葉佛時百丈山にあらざれども

 

■□■□

 

When someone says that a wild fox knows five hundred lives by using a wild fox’s intelligence, then the wild-fox-intelligence has not yet completely known the facts of one life, and a life has not yet rammed into a wild fox’s skin.

もし野狐をもちゐて五百生をしるといはば、野狐知、いまだ一生盡知せず、一生いまだ野狐皮撞入するにあらず

 

 

 Koku

 虛空

 Space

 

Now, let us learn in practice that Shakkyo has put his body into Seido’s nostrils. From the other side, realization is present of the words that “nostrils pull in Shakkyo.” And although it is like this, space is a unity, and it is jostling.

しばらく參學すべし、西堂鼻孔石鞏藏身せりあるいは鼻孔拽石鞏道現成ありしかもかくのごとくなりといへども、虛空一團、磕著築著なり

■□■□

 

The mutual encounter and mutual realization in the moment of the present between a person facing a wall and the wall facing the person; the mind as fences and walls; and the mind as a withered tree: these are just the concrete world of space.

いま壁面人人面壁、相逢相見する牆壁心、枯木心、これはこれ虛空界なり

 

 

 Hatsu-U

 

 The Patra

 

With regard to the patra: only of real dharmas is the patra composed; only of the patra are real dharmas composed.

鉢盂但以衆法、合成鉢盂なり。但以鉢盂、合成衆法なり

 

 

 Ango

 安居